An fMRI study of the neural correlates of incidental versus directed emotion processing in pediatric bipolar disorder.
ABSTRACT To use functional neuroimaging to probe the affective circuitry dysfunctions underlying disturbances in emotion processing and emotional reactivity in pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD).
Equal numbers of controls (HC) and unmedicated patients with euthymia and PBD were matched for age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, and IQ (n = 10 per group; mean age 14.2 years [SD 2.0 years]). The task consisted of a "directed" emotion processing condition where subjects judged whether emotion in facial expression was positive or negative and an "incidental" condition where subjects judged whether faces expressing similar affect were older or younger than 35 years.
Relative to the directed condition, the incidental condition elicited greater activation in the right amygdala and the right insula, the left middle frontal gyrus, and the left posterior cingulate cortex in patients with PBD, in contrast to the HC that showed greater activation in the right superior frontal gyrus. In both incidental and directed conditions, relative to visual fixation, patients with PBD showed less activation in the right prefrontal cortex (superior, middle, and inferior frontal gyri) and the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex and greater activation in the posterior visual and face-processing regions (i.e., right precuneus/cuneus, fusiform gyrus).
Increased amygdala activation observed in patients with PBD elicited by incidental emotional processing relative to directed emotional processing may indicate more intense automatic emotional reactivity. Furthermore, the right prefrontal systems that are believed to modulate affect seem to be less engaged in patients with PBD regardless of whether the emotion processing is incidental or directed, which may signify reduced top-down control of emotional reactivity in PBD.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Mani N Pavuluri, Nov 03, 2014
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ABSTRACT: Facial emotion recognition (FER) is one of the many cognitive deficits reported in bipolar disorder (BD) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate neuroanatomical correlates of FER impairments in BD type I (BD-I). Participants comprised 21 euthymic BD-I patients without Axis I DSM IV-TR comorbidities and 21 healthy controls who were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging and the Penn Emotion Recognition Test (ER40). Preprocessing of images used DARTEL (diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra) for optimized voxel-based morphometry in SPM8. Compared with healthy subjects, BD-I patients performed poorly in on the ER40 and had reduced gray matter volume (GMV) in the left orbitofrontal cortex, superior portion of the temporal pole and insula. In the BD-I group, the statistical maps indicated a direct correlation between FER on the ER40 and right middle cingulate gyrus GMV. Our findings are consistent with the previous studies regarding the overlap of multiple brain networks of social cognition and BD neurobiology, particularly components of the anterior-limbic neural network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Psychiatry Research Neuroimaging 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2015.05.009 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: According to the hypersensitive behavioral approach system (BAS) model of bipolar disorder (BP), hypersensitivity of the BAS is a trait that should be present even in the euthymic state. This would be expected to result in increased anger and reward sensitivity, both of which are related to the approach system. This study examined these predictions through the use of tasks that assess different aspects of the BAS: reward sensitivity, anger and impulsivity. These characteristics were assessed using the probabilistic classification task (PCT), ultimatum game (UG) and single key impulsivity paradigm (SKIP), respectively. Participants were euthymic adult bipolar disorder patients (BP; N=40) and healthy controls (HC; N=41). In the UG, all participants showed the standard pattern of rejecting overtly unfair offers and accepting clearly fair offers; however, BPs rejected more of the moderately unfair offers than did HCs. BP and HC participants did not differ on their ability to learn, but did show different patterns of learning from reward and punishment. Learning for reward and punishment were negatively correlated in the BP group, suggesting that individuals could learn well either from reward or punishment, but not both. No correlation was found between these forms of learning in the HC group. BP patients show signs of their disorder even in the euthymic state, as seen by the dysbalance between reward and punishment learning and their residual anger in the UG.10/2013; 215(1). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2013.10.028