Effect of Marinades on the Formation of Heterocyclic Amines in Grilled Beef Steaks

The Food Science Inst., Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS 66506, USA.
Journal of Food Science (Impact Factor: 1.7). 09/2008; 73(6):T100-5. DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2008.00856.x
Source: PubMed


Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are suspected human carcinogens formed in muscle foods during high temperature grilling or cooking. Inhibition of HCAs by commercial marinades rich in polyphenolic antioxidant containing spices was evaluated with beef round steaks cooked at 204 degrees C (400 degrees F). Treatment effects on the levels of 4 HCAs were investigated: 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-flquinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[4,3-b]indol (harman), and 9H-pyrido[4,3-blindol (norharman). The marinades were formulated according to the package label instruction in an oil, water, and vinegar mixture, and the steaks were treated for 1 h prior to grilling. All 3 marinades, Caribbean, Southwest, and herb, significantly decreased the imidazo-azaarene HCAs (MeIQx, PhIP) as contrasted to controls and liquid blanks. The Caribbean mixture showed the highest decrease in the total HCA content (88%), followed by the herb (72%) and Southwest (57%). With a few exceptions there were significant decreases in HCAs for treatments with only the marinade bases (ingredients without any spices/herbs). As measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the marinades contained considerable amounts of the polyphenolic antioxidants carnosic acid, carnosol, and rosmarinic acid with Caribbean being the highest. Commonly available spice-containing marinades can be effective inhibitors of HCA formation and provide reduced exposure to some of the carcinogens formed during grilling.

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    • "Carnosic acid, carnosol, and rosmarinic acid were the more abundant antioxidants . There were also significant decreases in HAAs for treatments with only the marinade bases, namely, ingredients without any spices/herbs (Smith and others 2008). However, there were no significant differences on HAAs levels of control meat samples (cooked without ingredients) and in meat samples cooked with ingredients usually in the Portuguese diet and rich in antioxidants, such as garlic, wine, olive oil, onion, and tomato (Melo and others 2008a). "
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    ABSTRACT:   This review compiles the contents of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in foods and beverages, collected from literature data along the period from 1992 up to 2009. Also, it describes the factors that affect the formation of HAAs in foods, such as the cooking method, including temperature, time, and frequency of turning of meat, during cooking. Other factors depending on the type of food and the recipe followed are pH, amounts of HAA precursors, types of amino acids, presence of certain divalent ions, and content of substances with enhancing or inhibiting effects on the formation of HAAs. In addition, there are other factors, which depend on the type of food, such as muscle tissue and the presence of certain genes, since the RN− allele in pigs increases the glycogen content of muscle. The dispersion of the bibliographic data is evident, and there are scarce data, even no data, referred to individual HAAs. Considering that the diverging results can be due to several causes, possible recommendations are given in order to prevent the dispersion of the results and to achieve more valuable information, applied to determine the HAAs exposure. Although there are not direct indications that HAAs represent a serious health risk to the population, and common cancers are produced by many factors including xenobiotics, all measures to minimize the formation of HAAs should be foreseen, some of which are indicated.
    Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 02/2011; 10(2):52 - 108. DOI:10.1111/j.1541-4337.2010.00141.x · 4.18 Impact Factor
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    • "Average recoveries for the HCAs were 72% for IQx, 61% for IQ, 63% for MeIQ, 68% for MeIQx, 60% for DiMeIQx, and 65% for PhIP. The recoveries of MeIQx and PhIP are in agreement with previous reports from this laboratory (Puangsombat & Smith, 2010; Smith et al., 2008; Tsen, Ameri, & Smith, 2006) and from Persson, Graziani, Ferracane, Fogliano, and Skog (2003) and Cheng et al. (2007) "
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    ABSTRACT: Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are produced in meats cooked at high temperature, which are potent mutagens and a risk factor for human cancers. The aim of this study was to estimate the amount of HCAs in some commonly consumed ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products. The RTE products were purchased from a local grocery store, and HCA were analyzed using an analytical method based on solid-phase extraction followed by HPLC. The primary HCAs in these samples were PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine) (not detected-7.9 ng/g) and MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline) (not detected-3.6 ng/g). Products ranked in order of increasing total HCA content: pepperoni (0.05 ng/g)<hot dogs and deli meat products (0.5 ng/g)<fully cooked bacon (1.1 ng/g)<rotisserie chicken meat (1.9 ng/g)<rotisserie chicken skin (16.3 ng/g). We believed that cooking conditions and ingredients influenced the level of HCAs in these RTE products and concluded that consumption of RTE meat products contributes very little to HCA intake. Results from this study can be used in risk assessment study to estimate human exposure to HCAs due to food consumption.
    Meat Science 12/2010; 88(2):227-33. DOI:10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.12.025 · 2.62 Impact Factor
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    • "If the healthiness of beef should be improved, consumers would prefer it to happen in the production phase of the beef chain. Currently, the beef sector tries to improve the healthiness of beef both in the production phase (for instance by adjusting the feed to influence the fatty acids composition of beef [2]) and the processing phase (for instance marinating to reduce the formation of carcinogenic compound during grilling [42]). Hence, the adding of potentially healthful and natural ingredients (such as olive oil and herb-based seasonings) in beef processing could increase the chances of acceptance of such products. "
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    ABSTRACT: Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular.
    BMC Public Health 06/2010; 10(1):342. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-10-342 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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