Surgical treatment of superior sulcus tumors: results and prognostic factors.
ABSTRACT This study aims to investigate the treatment modalities and factors influencing survival in surgically treated superior sulcus tumors.
Sixty-five cases of surgically treated non-small cell carcinoma of the lung occurring as superior sulcus tumors between 1994 and 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-five patients underwent induction radiotherapy (RT), 10 had induction chemoradiotherapy (CT/RT). In thirty patients surgery was performed directly. The mortality rate was 6.2 %. Pathological stage was T3 in 55, T4 in 10, N0 in 52, and N1 in 5 and N2 in 8 patients.
Overall 5- and 10-year survival rates were 31 % and 28 %, respectively. Complete resection rate was 90 % for patients who received induction CT/RT and 80 % for patients who either received induction RT alone or patients in whom surgery was performed directly. In patients who received neoadjuvant therapy with complete tumor resection, the median survival time was 33 months (28 months for patients who received induction RT alone and 36 months for patients who received induction CT/RT), and the 5-year survival rate was 41 %. Median survival time and 5-year survival rate of patients treated by direct surgery with complete resection was 24 months and 37 %, respectively ( P = 0.87). Five-year survival and 10-year survival rates were significantly higher after complete resection than after incomplete resection (38 % and 34 % vs. 0 %, P = 0.0001). In multivariate analysis, only N2 disease ( P = 0.04) and incomplete resection ( P = 0.03) were found to be poor prognostic factors.
The presence of N2 disease and incomplete resection are the two most important factors affecting survival. Induction CT/RT may increase the ability to achieve complete surgical resection.
Article: Results of primary surgery with T4 non-small cell lung cancer during a 25-year period in a single center: the benefit is worth the risk.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess operative mortality, morbidity, and long-term results of patients with surgically resected T4 non-small cell lung carcinoma. A retrospective review of 271 patients with T4 non-small cell lung carcinoma between 1981 and 2006 was undertaken. They were divided into four subgroups: 126 patients with superior sulcus tumors, 92 with carinal involvement, 39 with superior vena cava replacement, and 14 with the tumor invading other mediastinal structures. There were 221 men and 50 women with a mean age of 56.3 years. Resection was complete in 249 (92%) patients. The pathologic N status was N0/N1 in 208 and N2/N3/M1 in 63 patients. Operative mortality and morbidity rates were 4% and 35%, respectively. Overall 5-year survival rate was 38.4%. It was 36.6% for superior sulcus tumor, 42.5% for carinal involvement, 29.4% for superior vena cava replacement, and 61.2% for mediastinal group. By multivariate analysis, only three factors influenced survival: nodal status (N0/N1 versus N2/3/M1; 43% versus 17.7% at 5 years, respectively; p = 0.01), complete resection (R0 versus R1; 40.4% versus 15,9%, respectively; p = 0.006), and invasion of the subclavian artery (with versus without invasion; 24.9% versus 41.7%, respectively, p = 0.02). In highly qualified centers, radical surgery of T4 N0/N1 non-small cell lung carcinoma can be performed with a 4% mortality rate and may yield a 43% 5-year survival rate. These results seem to indicate primary surgery as the treatment of choice for T4 non-small cell lung carcinoma, whenever a complete resection is thought to be technically feasible and the patient's condition is compatible with the extent of the planned surgery.The Annals of thoracic surgery 11/2008; 86(4):1065-75; discussion 1074-5. · 3.74 Impact Factor