The aim was to determine the prevalence of small bowel involvement in patients with gastrointestinal (GI) lymphoma by double-balloon endoscopy (DBE). We examined 29 patients with primary GI lymphoma by oral and anal DBEs. Clinicopathologic features related to the prevalence of diminutive small bowel involvement and the clinical outcome were retrospectively investigated. Diminutive small bowel lesions were found in 14 patients. The prevalence of the lesions was not different between patients with primary small bowel lymphoma and those with primary extra-small bowel lymphoma (50% versus 47%, P = 0.6). However, clinical stage was more advanced in patients with the lesions than in those without (P < 0.05). The lesions were more frequently found in T-cell lymphoma (100%) and follicular lymphoma (77%) than in the other types of lymphoma (15%) (P < 0.05). Diminutive small intestinal lesions occur in patients with GI lymphoma, especially in those with follicular lymphoma and T-cell lymphoma. GI lymphomas of these histologic types are candidates for scrutiny by DBE.
"Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of the small bowel show a great endoscopic variation, sometimes presenting with ulcerative, nodular or infiltrative changes, but sometimes only with diminutive mucosal changes like erythema or lymphangiectasias . A common endoscopic appearance is a firm, motionless mucosa. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small bowel tumours are rare and originate from a wide variety of benign and malignant entities. Adenocarcinomas are the most frequent primary malignant small bowel tumours. Submucosal tumours like gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) or neuroendocrine tumours (NET) may show a central umbilication, pathologic vessels, bridging folds or an ulceration of the overlying mucosa. These signs help to differentiate them from harmless bulges caused by impression from outside, e.g. from other intestinal loops. Sarcomas of the small bowel are rare neoplasias with mesenchymal origin, sometimes presenting as protruding masses. Benign tumours like lipoma, fibrolipoma, fibroma, myoma, and heterotopias typically present as submucosal masses. They cannot be differentiated endoscopically from those with malignant potential as GIST or NET. Neuroendocrine carcinomas may present with diffuse infiltration, which may resemble other malignant tumours. The endoscopic appearance of small bowel lymphomas has a great variation from mass lesions to diffuse infiltrative changes. Melanoma metastases are the most frequent metastases to the small bowel. They may be hard to distinguish from other tumours when originating from an amelanotic melanoma.
Video Journal and Encyclopedia of GI Endoscopy 01/2013; 1(3-4). DOI:10.1016/j.vjgien.2013.08.001
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL), nasal type, is rare and the small intestine is quite extraordinary as a primary lesion site. We report a 47-year-old man with ENKL of the small intestine. He was referred to our hospital because of bloody stool and the diagnosis was made by double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) of the small intestine without surgical procedure. His clinical stage was IVB and he was categorized in group 4 by prognostic index of ENKL. He went into complete remission (CR) after intensive chemotherapy (DeVIC) and subsequently underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Although he remained in CR for about 8 months after BMT, he died of disease recurrence 14 months after the diagnosis was made. ENKL of the small intestine follows a highly aggressive course. We describe the usefulness of DBE for diagnosis and management for ENKL of the small intestine. Additional cases, however, should be accumulated to establish optimal treatment strategy.
International journal of hematology 11/2009; 90(5):605-10. DOI:10.1007/s12185-009-0438-7 · 1.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enteropathy Associated T-cell Lymphoma (EATL) is an intestinal tumour of intra-epithelial lymphocytes. Based on morphology, immunohistochemistry and genetic profile EATL can be divided into two groups. EATL type I is a large cell lymphoma which is highly associated with Coeliac Disease (CD) and mostly presents with malabsorption, weight loss and CD-related symptoms. EATL type II consists of small to medium-sized cells and presents often with obstruction or perforation of the small bowel. This type of EATL has no known association with CD. When EATL has been diagnosed a thorough diagnostic work-up is needed. This work-up preferably includes video capsule enteroscopy (VCE), double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE), computed tomography (CT) combined with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan (18F-FDG-PET scan) if possible and magnetic resonance enteroclysis (MRE). Nowadays, most EATL patients are treated with chemotherapy mostly preceded by resection of the tumour and followed by stem cell transplantation. Despite these therapies outcome of EATL remains very poor with a 5-year survival of 8-20%. In order to improve survival prospective multicentre trials, studying new therapies are needed. The combination of chemotherapy, monoclonal antibodies and/or apoptosis inducing small molecules might be a potential treatment for EATL in the (nearby) future.
Best practice & research. Clinical gastroenterology 02/2010; 24(1):43-56. DOI:10.1016/j.bpg.2009.11.002 · 3.48 Impact Factor
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