Immunology at the university of Rochester.

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, NY 14642, USA.
Immunologic Research (Impact Factor: 3.1). 03/2009; 45(2-3):97-9. DOI: 10.1007/s12026-009-8099-4
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Available from: Edith M Lord, Dec 10, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have elucidated unanticipated connections between the immune and skeletal systems, and this relationship has led to the development of a new field known as osteoimmunology. The goal of research in this field is to: (1) further understand how the bone microenvironment influences immune cell ontogeny and subsequent effector functions, and (2) translate basic science findings in bone biology to clinical applications for autoimmune diseases that target the skeleton such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this review, we will examine the recent findings of the interplay between the immune and skeletal systems. This discussion will focus on the cells and signaling pathways in osteoimmune interactions and how innate and adaptive immune effector cells as well as cytokines and chemokines play a role in the maintenance and dysregulation of skeletal-immune homeostasis. We will also discuss how immunomodulatory biologic drugs, which specifically target these cells and effector molecules, have transformed the treatment of autoimmune mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) and metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis.
    Immunologic Research 02/2009; 45(2-3):100-13. DOI:10.1007/s12026-009-8093-x · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The discovery that platelets possess cell membrane, cytoplasmic, and secreted forms of the co-stimulatory molecule CD40 ligand (CD40L, also known as CD154) has led to a revolution in the view of this anucleate, differentiated cell fragment, previously thought only to be involved in blood clotting (hemostasis). During the last decade, it has become clear that platelets function in innate and adaptive immunity and possess pro-inflammatory, as well as pro-thrombotic properties. They interact not only with other platelets and endothelial cells, but also with lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and structural cells such as fibroblasts. Soluble forms of CD40L (sCD40L) in the human circulation are almost entirely derived from platelets. Elevated levels of CD40L are associated with clinically important conditions, such as vascular disease, abnormal clotting (thrombosis), lung injury, and autoimmune disease. Each year millions of platelet transfusions are given to patients that contain large amounts of sCD40L. sCD40L in the supernatant of stored platelets can induce cytokines, chemokines, and lipid mediators by activating CD40 bearing cells. Increased levels of sCD40L in transfused blood are associated with transfusion-related acute lung injury, a potentially fatal complication, as well as more common, milder transfusion reactions such as fever and rigors. These effects come under the rubric of transfusion immunomodulation, which postulates that transfusion recipient biology, particularly immune function, is dramatically altered by transfusion of stored allogeneic blood.
    Immunologic Research 02/2009; 45(2-3):251-60. DOI:10.1007/s12026-009-8106-9 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The heat shock proteins (HSPs) gp96 and hsp70 can elicit potent anti-tumor responses and as such have significant clinical potential. Besides cytotoxic CD8 T cell (CTLs) effectors, evidence suggests that natural killer (NK) cells and other less well-characterized cell types also play a critical role in HSP-mediated anti-tumor responses. Owing to their high degree of phylogenetic conservation, we have proposed that HSPs are ancestral agents of immune surveillance; and postulated that their immunological properties, if important, should have been conserved during evolution. We are investigating this issue using a unique non-mammalian comparative tumor-immunity model in the frog Xenopus, which allows us to focus on the relationship between HSPs, classical MHC class Ia, and non-classical MHC class Ib molecules. In addition to a transplantable lymphoid tumor in genetically defined cloned Xenopus, we are generating transgenic frogs with inducible or knocked-down (RNAi) gene expression.
    Immunologic Research 03/2009; 45(2-3):114-22. DOI:10.1007/s12026-009-8094-9 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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