Pediatric stone disease.
ABSTRACT Urinary stone disease is less common in children than adults. Although many aspects of pediatric stone disease are similar to that of adults, there are unique concerns regarding the presentation, diagnosis, and management of stone disease in children. We present a review of the increasing prevalence of pediatric stone disease, the diagnostic concerns specific to children, recent results from pediatric series regarding the expectant management and surgical treatment of stones, metabolic evaluation, and current research on the genetics of nephrolithiasis.
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ABSTRACT: Calcium nephrolithiasis in children is increasing in prevalence and tends to be recurrent. Although children have a lower incidence of nephrolithiasis than adults, its etiology in children is less well understood; hence, treatments targeted for adults may not be optimal in children. To better understand metabolic abnormalities in stone-forming children, we compared chemical measurements and the crystallization properties of 24-h urine collections from 129 stone formers matched to 105 non-stone-forming siblings and 183 normal, healthy children with no family history of stones, all aged 6 to 17 years. The principal risk factor for calcium stone formation was hypercalciuria. Stone formers have strikingly higher calcium excretion along with high supersaturation for calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, and a reduced distance between the upper limit of metastability and supersaturation for calcium phosphate, indicating increased risk of calcium phosphate crystallization. Other differences in urine chemistry that exist between adult stone formers and normal individuals such as hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, abnormal urine pH, and low urine volume were not found in these children. Hence, hypercalciuria and a reduction in the gap between calcium phosphate upper limit of metastability and supersaturation are crucial determinants of stone risk. This highlights the importance of managing hypercalciuria in children with calcium stones.Kidney International 02/2012; 81(11):1140-8. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We conducted a population based pediatric study to determine the incidence of symptomatic kidney stones during a 25-year period and to identify factors related to variation in stone incidence during this period. The Rochester Epidemiology Project was used to identify all patients younger than 18 years who were diagnosed with kidney stones in Olmsted County, Minnesota from 1984 to 2008. Medical records were reviewed to validate first time symptomatic stone formers with identification of age appropriate symptoms plus stone confirmation by imaging or passage. The incidence of symptomatic stones by age, gender and study period was compared. Clinical characteristics of incident stone formers were described. A total of 207 children received a diagnostic code for kidney stones, of whom 84 (41%) were validated as incident stone formers. The incidence rate increased 4% per calendar year (p = 0.01) throughout the 25-year period. This finding was due to a 6% yearly increased incidence in children 12 to 17 years old (p = 0.02 for age × calendar year interaction) with an increase from 13 per 100,000 person-years between 1984 and 1990 to 36 per 100,000 person-years between 2003 and 2008. Computerized tomography identified the stone in 6% of adolescent stone formers (1 of 18) from 1984 to 1996 vs 76% (34 of 45) from 1997 to 2008. The incidence of spontaneous stone passage in adolescents did not increase significantly between these 2 periods (16 vs 18 per 100,000 person-years, p = 0.30). The incidence of kidney stones increased dramatically among adolescents in the general population during a 25-year period. The exact cause of this finding remains to be determined.The Journal of urology 05/2012; 188(1):247-52. · 4.02 Impact Factor
Article: [Urolithiasis in childhood.][Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Urinary stone disease is relatively rare in children with an overall incidence of 1-2 %; however, it is often associated with metabolic abnormalities that may lead to recurrent stone formation. Stone analysis and subsequent metabolic evaluation is therefore mandatory for this high-risk group after the first stone event. The objectives of stone management in children should be complete stone clearance, prevention of stone recurrence, preservation of renal function, control of urinary tract infections, correction of anatomical abnormalities and correction of the underlying metabolic disorders. The full range of minimally invasive procedures is available if active stone removal is necessary. The majority of stones in children can be managed either with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy which has a higher efficacy in children than in adults, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, ureterorenoscopy or a combination of these modalities while open or laparoscopic surgery is limited to well-selected cases with underlying anatomical abnormalities.Der Urologe 04/2013; · 0.46 Impact Factor