Risk factors for early primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation: a registry study.
ABSTRACT Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is a leading cause of early morbidity and mortality in lung transplantation. We sought to identify risk factors for PGD using the United Network for Organ Sharing/International Society for Heart and Lung Transplant (UNOS/ISHLT) Registry.
A total of 6984 lung transplants between 1994 and 2002 were available for analysis. Potential risk factors were tested for association with PGD and multivariable logistic regression was applied to adjust for confounding.
The overall incidence of PGD was 10.7% (95% CI 9.9-11.4). In multivariable analyses, factors independently associated with PGD were donor age >45 yr (p < 0.001); donor head trauma (p = 0.03); recipient body mass index >25 kg/m(2) (p = 0.005); recipient female gender (p = 0.001); use of Eurocollins preservation solution (p = 0.001); single lung transplant (p = 0.005); increased ischemic time (p < 0.001); and elevated recipient pulmonary artery systolic pressure at transplant (p < 0.001). Recipient transplant diagnosis was strongly associated with PGD, with primary or secondary pulmonary hypertension (p < 0.001 for both), and idiopathic (p < 0.001) or secondary pulmonary fibrosis (p = 0.011) as significant and independent risk factors for PGD.
Risk factors for PGD in the UNOS/ISHLT registry are consistent with prior smaller studies. Recipient, donor, and therapy variables are independently associated with PGD, as defined in a large registry.
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ABSTRACT: Several experimental, clinical, and epidemiologic studies indicate a better prognosis in women after an infectious challenge. The monocyte/macrophage, as coordinators of the innate immune response to sepsis, secrete plasma inflammatory cytokines. Elevated plasma cytokine levels are inversely correlated with outcome. In addition, single-nucleotide polymorphisms related to these cytokine genes and in genes important for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) detection, particularly toll-like receptor-4, have been associated with variations in clinical outcome. We hypothesize that the gender differences in clinical outcome are due to measurable differences in cytokine responses and intracellular signaling, and these differences are independent of polymorphism carrier status. Venous blood samples from healthy subjects (56 men, 23 women) were incubated with LPS, and supernatant cytokine levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In a randomly chosen subgroup, (8 men, 4 women), peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated, and LPS-mediated intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation was assayed via Western blot analysis. Each subject was screened for the following SNPs: tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) -308G/A, interleukin (IL)-6 -174G/C, IL-1beta -31C/T, and toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) +896A/G. Women produced significantly less LPS-induced TNF-alpha and IL-1beta but not IL-6. When the analysis was adjusted for the presence of each polymorphism, the differences in TNF-alpha and IL-1beta accumulation persisted. Female gender was associated with lower MAPK phosphorylation at each LPS concentration but was not statistically significant. Gender-specific differences in LPS-induced TNF-alpha and IL-1beta were observed, possibly attributed to alterations in MAPK phosphorylation. Furthermore, studies investigating the influence of genomic variation on the innate immune response should address potential gender-related differences.Surgery 09/2005; 138(2):275-82. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R injury) to the liver can occur in low-flow states associated with trauma and shock and surgical procedures such as liver transplantation. Recent studies have shown that the administration of the female sex hormone 17-beta-estradiol after trauma-hemorrhage in animals restores depressed cardiac, hepatocellular, and immune functions. In this study we evaluated the effects of 17-beta-estradiol on I/R injury to the liver. The medial lobe of the liver in normal male C57BL/6 mice was clamped at its base for 90 minutes. 17-Beta-estradiol was given 1 hour before I/R injury at 40 and 4000 microg/kg intraperitoneally. Biochemical analysis was performed, and liver biopsy specimens were obtained at 24 hours. A dose-dependent reduction in aspartate aminotransferase level was observed in animals (n = 8) given estradiol (243 +/- 23 IU/L) compared with saline-treated animals (902 +/- 42 IU/L, P <.001). The majority (90%) of the cytoprotective effect of estradiol was reverted by ICI 182,780 (a potent estrogen receptor antagonist). A significant increase in serum nitric oxide (NO) level was observed in animals given estradiol compared with controls; the effect was reversed by ICI 182,780 and N-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (an inhibitor of NO synthesis). A reduction in serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha was observed after injury in animals given estradiol compared with controls (30.2 +/- 11.1 vs 75.8 +/- 17.2 pg/mL, P <.001). Estradiol treatment significantly reduced liver necrosis, disintegration of hepatic cords, and neutrophil infiltration in an estrogen receptor-dependent manner. Estradiol administration significantly reduced injury after I/R to the liver, an effect that is mainly receptor-mediated and is associated with increased serum NO, decreased TNF-alpha, and decreased number of neutrophils in liver biopsy specimens. Estrogen therapy may be important in clinical conditions associated with I/R injury to the liver.Surgery 09/2002; 132(2):302-9. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study was designed to compare the effect of lung preservation with low-potassium dextran solution and Euro-Collins solution on reperfusion injury and surfactant function by using an in situ model of warm ischemia. The left lungs of 6 minipigs were selectively perfused with Euro-Collins solution. In an additional 6 animals low-potassium dextran solution was used for flush perfusion. After 90 minutes of warm ischemia, the lungs were reperfused, and the contralateral pulmonary artery and bronchus were clamped. Hemodynamic and respiratory measurements were obtained for 7 hours of reperfusion. Surface tension of bronchoalveolar lavage and surfactant small and large aggregates were determined before perfusion (right lung) and after 2 hours of reperfusion (left lung). In the group receiving Euro-Collins solution, right heart failure developed within 215 +/- 39 minutes of reperfusion. An increase in minimal surface tension (P =.03), surfactant small aggregates/large aggregates ratio (P =.003), and bronchoalveolar lavage protein content (P =.012) were found after 2 hours of reperfusion. In the group receiving low-potassium dextran solution, all minipigs survived (P =.0001). Dynamic lung compliance (P =.034) and oxygen tension/inspired oxygen fraction ratios were higher (P =. 0001). Lung water content was lower (P =.049). The increase of minimal surface tension (P =.02) and bronchoalveolar lavage protein concentration (P =.015) were significantly less. Preservation of the lung with Euro-Collins solution leads to a reduction of physical surfactant function during reperfusion. Low-potassium dextran solution protects surfactant function and metabolism, thereby reducing reperfusion injury of the lung.Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 10/2000; 120(3):566-72. · 3.53 Impact Factor