The epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Qatar.
ABSTRACT Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in many countries all over the world and especially in Middle East, Asia, East-Europe, and Africa. The aim of our study was to assess the incidence of viral hepatitis A, B and C in Qatar and compare it with other countries. This is a retrospective cohort study, which was conducted at Hamad General Hospital, State of Qatar from 2002-2006. Patients who were screened and diagnosed with viral hepatitis were included in this study. The diagnostic classification of definite viral hepatitis was made in accordance with criteria based on the International Classification of Disease tenth revision (ICD-10). A total of 527 cases of hepatitis C, 396 cases of hepatitis B, 162 cases of hepatitis A and 108 cases of unspecified were reported during the year 2006. Reported incidence rate per 10,000 populations during the year 2006 for hepatitis A was 1.9, hepatitis B 4.7, and Hepatitis C 6.3. The proportion of hepatitis B and C was significantly higher in male population than females across the years (2002-2006). Hepatitis A was more prevalent in children below 15 years (72.3%), hepatitis B in adults aged above 15 years, and hepatitis C in the population above 35 years of age. The incidence of hepatitis A has been declining in Qataris and increasing in expatriates. There was a significant relationship in gender and age group of the patients with hepatitis A, B and C. We conclude that hepatitis has become a national health issue in Qatar. The incidence rate of hepatitis in Qatar is comparable to its neighboring countries, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. There is a need for further research on hepatitis and the associated risk factors.
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ABSTRACT: Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18: 1068-1080 ABSTRACT: Infectious diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality globally. Epidemiologically, differences in the patterns of infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance exist across diverse geographical regions. In this review on infectious diseases in the Arabian Peninsula and Egypt, the epidemiology of tuberculosis, malaria and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections will be addressed. The challenges of the hepatitis C epidemic in Egypt and the epidemiology of this infection across the region will be reviewed. In recent years, we have seen dengue endemicity become established, with major outbreaks in parts of the region. Emerging data also indicate that, across the region, there is an increasing burden of antibiotic resistance, with endemicity in healthcare settings and dissemination into the community. New challenges include the emergence of the Alkhurma haemorrhagic fever virus in Saudi Arabia. The annual Hajj pilgrimage in Saudi Arabia serves as a model for the control of infectious disease in mass gatherings. As most of these countries constantly experience a uniquely dynamic population influx in the form of expatriate workers, tourists, or pilgrims, concerted regional and international collaboration to address these public health concerns in a region that lies at the crossroads for the global spread of infectious pathogens is imperative.Clinical Microbiology and Infection 11/2012; 18(11):1068-80. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: United Arab Emirates (UAE) has a heterogeneous population consisting of more than 160 nationalities and 85% of the population being non-UAE. In 2007, Dubai Blood Donation Centre (DBDC), the major local supplier of blood in the UAE, introduced six-minipool nucleic acid test (NAT) for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which in 2008 upgraded to individual-donation (ID)-NAT. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of the donor screening program in the UAE and evaluate the impact of NAT on the yield and residual risk of transfusion-transmissible viral infections (TTVIs). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 169,781 blood donations collected at DBDC between 2004 and 2009 were screened for TTVIs. During the period 2008 through 2009, a total of 59,283 donations were tested with both ID-NAT and serologic assays. The incidence, prevalence, and residual risk for each viral agent were estimated and analyzed. RESULTS: The individual prevalences of HBV, HCV, and HIV per 100,000 donation were 234.4, 110, and 4, respectively. Calculated residual risk per million donations for HBV was decreased from 1.41 in pre-NAT period to 0.92 in post-NAT period. These figures were decreased for HCV and HIV from 1.73 and 0.39 to 0 and 0.32, respectively. CONCLUSION: Incidence rates and estimated residual risk indicate that the current risk of TTVIs attributable to blood donation is relatively low in the UAE. The study recommends the parallel use of both serology and ID-NAT TTVIs screening in blood donations and suggests the exclusion of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen-positive donations as this can eliminate the potential infectivity of these units with marginal effects on the blood stock in UAE.Transfusion 06/2012; · 3.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Military personnel are deployed abroad for missions ranging from humanitarian relief efforts to combat actions; delay or interruption in these activities due to disease transmission can cause operational disruptions, significant economic loss, and stressed or exceeded military medical resources. Deployed troops function in environments favorable to the rapid and efficient transmission of many viruses particularly when levels of protection are suboptimal. When immunity among deployed military populations is low, the risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks increases, impacting troop readiness and achievement of mission objectives. However, targeted vaccination and the optimization of preexisting immunity among deployed populations can decrease the threat of outbreaks among deployed troops. Here we describe methods for the computational modeling of disease transmission to explore how preexisting immunity compares with vaccination at the time of deployment as a means of preventing outbreaks and protecting troops and mission objectives during extended military deployment actions. These methods are illustrated with five modeling case studies for separate diseases common in many parts of the world, to show different approaches required in varying epidemiological settings.Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine 01/2014; 2014:785752. · 1.02 Impact Factor