Syphilis is a complex disease, which is sexually transmitted. The incidence of syphilis is rising all over the world, partly due to the increased transmission in HIV patients and other high risk groups such as men who have sex with men. Interestingly syphilis itself facilitates HIV infection in several ways. Great importance exists in recognition of both diseases and their complex interactions. This article will review the manifestations of syphilis in the context of HIV infected patients, and the challenging diagnosis and management of these patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Papulo- and vesiculo-necrotic lesions are rare manifestations of secondary syphilis. Until now it has been described only in HIV-infected patients with advanced stages of immunosuppression. This case report describes an unusual case of PLEVA-like syphilis in a 33-year-old man with newly diagnosed HIV infection. Despite that the CD4 cells level and viral load did not indicate the advance stage of immunosuppression, the unusual manifestation of syphilis and neurosyphilis occurred. The presented case indicates the need for HIV screening in every patient with syphilis especially when the clinical manifestation is unusual. Importance of syphilis testing in every case with atypical rashes should be also highlighted.
"Syphilis may affect the natural history of HIV infection, and unusual clinical manifestations of syphilis and neurosyphilis may be more frequently seen in HIV-positive patients [9,10]. Although the relationship between these two diseases remains controversial, the course of syphilis seems to be more rapid and malignant in HIV-positive patients [9,10]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Syphilis is a chronic infection that is classified into three stages. In its tertiary stage, syphilis spreads to the brain, heart and other organs; the lesions may involve the skin, mucous membranes and bones. Neuropathic arthropathy associated with tertiary syphilis has rarely been described in Europe and its association with HIV-HCV co-infection has not been reported so far.This article reports the case of a man with tertiary syphilis presenting with rapidly evolving neuropathic arthropathy of the hip and extensive bone destruction.
On initial presentation, the patient complained of progressively worsening left-sided coxalgia without localized or generalized inflammation. The patient reported to have no history of previous infections, trauma or cancer. Plain x-ray films of the left coxofemoral joint showed marked degeneration with necrosis of the proximal epiphysis of femur and morphological alterations of the acetabulum without protrusion. Primary coxarthrosis was diagnosed and hip arthroplasty was offered, but the patient declined treatment. Three months later, the patient presented a marked deterioration of his general condition. He disclosed that he was seropositive for HCV and HIV, as confirmed by serology. Syphilis serology testing was also positive. A Girdlestone's procedure was performed and samples were collected for routine cultures for bacteria and acid fast bacilli, all resulting negative.Although histological findings were inconclusive, confirmed positive serology for syphilis associated with progressive arthropathy was strongly suggestive of tertiary syphilis, probably exacerbated by HIV-HCV co-infection. The patient partially recovered the ability to walk.
Due to the resurgence of syphilis, this disease should be considered as a possible cause of neuropathic arthropathy when other infectious causes have been ruled out, particularly in patients with HIV and/or HCV co-infection.
"Disease course is altered in T. pallidum and HIV co-infections; there is a higher rate of asymptomatic infection, a faster progression to secondary disease which is often more aggressive with a significant predisposition for the development of neurological complaints. However, after treatment HIV positive patients recover as well as the HIV negative population [13,14]. In co-infections of HIV and Leptospira species. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lyme Neuroborreliosis (LNB) in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patient is a rare co-infection and has only been reported four times in literature. No case of an HIV patient with a meningoencephalitis due to LNB in combination with HIV has been described to date.
A 51 year old woman previously diagnosed with HIV presented with an atypical and severe LNB. Diagnosis was made evident by several microbiological techniques. Biochemical and microbiological recovery during treatment was rapid, however after treatment the patient suffered from severe and persistent sequelae.
A clinician should consider LNB when being confronted with an HIV patient with focal encephalitis, without any history of Lyme disease or tick bites, in an endemic area. Rapid diagnosis and treatment is necessary in order to minimize severe sequelae.
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