Psychotic disorders in Argentine patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy: A case-control study
ABSTRACT The issue of psychotic disorders in epilepsy has given rise to great controversy among professionals; however, there are not many studies in this area and the physiopathological mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study was to describe the spectrum of psychotic disorders in an Argentine population with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (RTLE) and to determine the risk factors associated with psychotic disorders. Clinical variables of the epileptic syndrome were compared among a selected population with RTLE with and without psychotic disorders (DSM-IV/Ictal Classification of psychoses). Logistic regression was performed. Sixty-three patients with psychotic disorders (Psychotic Group, PG) and 60 controls (Control Group, CG) were included. The most frequent psychotic disorders were brief psychotic episodes (35%) (DSM-IV) and interictal psychosis (50%) (Ictal Classification). Risk factors for psychotic disorders were bilateral hippocampal sclerosis, history of status epilepticus, and duration of epilepsy greater than 20 years.
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ABSTRACT: Epidemiological data show that up to 20-30% of patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs), resembling drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE), are referred to tertiary epilepsy centers. Furthermore, both disorders present high psychiatric comorbidity, and video-EEG is the gold standard to make differential diagnoses. In this study, we described and compared the clinical presentation and the frequency of psychiatric disorders codified in DSM IV in two groups of patients, one with PNESs and the other with DRE, admitted in a tertiary care epilepsy center of Buenos Aires, Argentina. We included 35 patients with PNESs and 49 with DRE; all were admitted in the video-EEG unit in order to confirm an epilepsy diagnosis and determine surgical treatment possibilities. All patients underwent a neurological and psychiatric assessment, according to standardized protocol (SCID I and II; DSM IV criteria). Student's t test was performed to compare continuous variables and Chi square test to compare qualitative variables. In this study, 33 (67%) patients with DRE and 35 (100%) patients with PNESs met criteria for at least one disorder codified in Axis I of DSM IV (p=0.003). Differences in the frequency of psychiatric disorder presentation were found between groups. Anxiety disorders (16.32% vs 40%; p=0.015), trauma history (24.5% vs 48.57%; p=0.02), posttraumatic stress disorder (4.08% vs 22.85%; p=0.009), and personality cluster B disorders (18.37% vs 42.86%; p=0.02) were more frequent in the group with PNESs. Psychotic disorders were more frequent in the group with DRE (20.4% vs 2.85%; p=0.019). Depression was equally prevalent in both groups. Standardized psychiatric assessment provides information that could be used by the mental health professional who receives the referral in order to improve quality of care and smooth transitions to proper PNES treatment, which should include a multidisciplinary approach including neurology and psychiatry.Epilepsy & Behavior 08/2013; 29(1):155-160. DOI:10.1016/j.yebeh.2013.07.012 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives Temporal lobe resistant epilepsy has been associated with a high incidence of psychotic disorders; however, there are many controversies; while some patients get better after surgery from their psychiatric condition, others develop psychosis or de novo depression. The aim of this study was to determine the psychiatric and seizure outcome after epilepsy surgery in patients with a previous history of psychoses. Methods Surgical candidates with temporal lobe drug-resistant epilepsy and a positive history of psychosis diagnosed during the presurgical psychiatric assessment were included. A two-year prospective follow-up was determined after surgery. The DSM-IV Structural Interview, GAF (global assessment of functionality, DSM-IV), Ictal Classification for psychoses, and Engel's classification were used. The Student t test and chi-square–Fisher tests were used. Results During 2000–2010, 89 patients were admitted to the epilepsy surgery program, 14 patients (15.7%) presented psychoses and were included in this series. After surgery, six patients (43%) did not develop any psychiatric complications, three patients (21%) with chronic interictal psychosis continued with no exacerbation, three patients (21%) developed acute and transient psychotic symptoms, and two patients (14%) developed de novo depression. Seizure outcome was Engel class I-II in 10 patients (71%). Total GAF scores were higher after surgery in patients found to be in Engel class I–II (p < 0.05). Conclusions Patients with comorbid psychosis and temporal lobe drug-resistant epilepsy may benefit from epilepsy surgery under close psychiatric supervision.Epilepsy & Behavior 08/2014; 37:165–170. DOI:10.1016/j.yebeh.2014.06.002 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Temporal lobe epilepsy surgery has become a successful alternative in patients with refractory epilepsy. However, the outcome of epilepsy surgery may be affected by the occurrence of postsurgical psychiatric symptoms, such as psychosis. This report describes three cases of refractory temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis, which, after anterior temporal lobectomy, presented with acute psychosis. One of them had a history of acute psychosis, and all of them met criteria for Cluster A personality disorder (schizoid/schizotypal) during psychiatric assessment prior to surgery. The three cases had a good seizure outcome (Engel I), but, on follow-up during the first year after surgery, developed an acute psychotic episode compatible with schizoaffective disorder; brief psychotic disorder; and a delusional disorder, respectively, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Treatment with low-dose risperidone was successful.Epilepsy & Behavior 12/2011; 22(4):804-7. DOI:10.1016/j.yebeh.2011.09.029 · 2.06 Impact Factor