Mapping correlations between ventricular expansion and CSF amyloid and tau biomarkers in 240 subjects with Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment and elderly controls.

Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, Department of Neurology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095-7332, USA.
NeuroImage (Impact Factor: 6.13). 03/2009; 46(2):394-410. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.02.015
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We aimed to improve on the single-atlas ventricular segmentation method of (Carmichael, O.T., Thompson, P.M., Dutton, R.A., Lu, A., Lee, S.E., Lee, J.Y., Kuller, L.H., Lopez, O.L., Aizenstein, H.J., Meltzer, C.C., Liu, Y., Toga, A.W., Becker, J.T., 2006. Mapping ventricular changes related to dementia and mild cognitive impairment in a large community-based cohort. IEEE ISBI. 315-318) by using multi-atlas segmentation, which has been shown to lead to more accurate segmentations (Chou, Y., Leporé, N., de Zubicaray, G., Carmichael, O., Becker, J., Toga, A., Thompson, P., 2008. Automated ventricular mapping with multi-atlas fluid image alignment reveals genetic effects in Alzheimer's disease, NeuroImage 40(2): 615-630); with this method, we calculated minimal numbers of subjects needed to detect correlations between clinical scores and ventricular maps. We also assessed correlations between emerging CSF biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease pathology and localizable deficits in the brain, in 80 AD, 80 mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 80 healthy controls from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Six expertly segmented images and their embedded parametric mesh surfaces were fluidly registered to each brain; segmentations were averaged within subjects to reduce errors. Surface-based statistical maps revealed powerful correlations between surface morphology and 4 variables: (1) diagnosis, (2) depression severity, (3) cognitive function at baseline, and (4) future cognitive decline over the following year. Cognitive function was assessed using the mini-mental state exam (MMSE), global and sum-of-boxes clinical dementia rating (CDR) scores, at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Lower CSF Abeta(1-42) protein levels, a biomarker of AD pathology assessed in 138 of the 240 subjects, were correlated with lateral ventricular expansion. Using false discovery rate (FDR) methods, 40 and 120 subjects, respectively, were needed to discriminate AD and MCI from normal groups. 120 subjects were required to detect correlations between ventricular enlargement and MMSE, global CDR, sum-of-boxes CDR and clinical depression scores. Ventricular expansion maps correlate with pathological and cognitive measures in AD, and may be useful in future imaging-based clinical trials.

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    ABSTRACT: The C allele at the rs11136000 locus in the clusterin (CLU) gene is the third strongest known genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). A recent genome-wide association study of LOAD found the strongest evidence of association with CLU at rs1532278, in high linkage disequilibrium with rs11136000. Brain structure and function are related to the CLU risk alleles, not just in LOAD patients but also in healthy young adults. We tracked the volume of the lateral ventricles across baseline, 1-year, and 2-year follow-up scans in a large sample of elderly human participants (N = 736 at baseline), from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, to determine whether these CLU risk variants predicted longitudinal ventricular expansion. The rs11136000 major C allele-previously linked with reduced CLU expression and with increased risk for dementia-predicted faster expansion, independently of dementia status or ApoE genotype. Further analyses revealed that the CLU and ApoE risk variants had combined effects on both volumetric expansion and lateral ventricle surface morphology. The rs1532278 locus strongly resembles a regulatory element. Its association with ventricular expansion was slightly stronger than that of rs11136000 in our analyses, suggesting that it may be closer to a functional variant. Clusterin affects inflammation, immune responses, and amyloid clearance, which in turn may result in neurodegeneration. Pharmaceutical agents such as valproate, which counteract the effects of genetically determined reduced clusterin expression, may help to achieve neuroprotection and contribute to the prevention of dementia, especially in carriers of these CLU risk variants.
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