Structure and promoter characterization of aldo-keto reductase family 1 B10 gene.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Immunology, and Cell Biology, SimmonsCooper Cancer Institute, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, 913 N. Rutledge Street, Springfield, IL 62702, USA.
Gene (Impact Factor: 2.2). 03/2009; 437(1-2):39-44. DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2009.02.007
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10 (AKR1B10) is overexpressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma, lung squamous carcinoma, and lung adenocarcinoma in smokers. Our recent studies have showed that AKR1B10 plays a critical role in the growth and proliferation of cancer cells by detoxifying reactive carbonyls and regulating fatty acid biosynthesis. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of AKR1B10 expression. In this study, we determined the structure of AKR1B10 gene and characterized its promoter. The results demonstrated that AKR1B10 consists of 10 exons and 9 introns, stretching approximately 13.8 kb. A 5'-RACE study determined the transcriptional start site of AKR1B10 at 320 bp upstream of the ATG translational start codon. A TATA-like (TAATAA) and a CAAT box are present from -145 to -140 bp and -193 to -190 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site, respectively. Motif analysis recognized multiple putative oncogenic and tumor suppressor protein binding sites in the AKR1B10 promoter, including c-Ets-1, C/EBP, AP-1, and p53, but osmolytic response elements were not found. A -4091 bp of the 5'-flanking fragment of the AKR1B10 gene was capable of driving GFP and luciferase reporter gene expression in HepG2 cells derived from human hepatocellular carcinoma; progressive 5'-deletions revealed that a -255 bp fragment possesses full promoter activity.

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    ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between AKR1B10 expression and clinicopathological features of gastric cancer (GC). Methods Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to determine AKR1B10 mRNA expression. AKR1B10 protein levels were measured by immunohistochemistry. Results RT-PCR analysis confirmed that AKR1B10 was significantly down-regulated in gastric cancer compared with paired, normal mucosa. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the percentage of AKR1B10-positive specimens was lower in gastric carcinoma compared with normal specimens. The frequency of AKR1B10-positive GC specimens was higher in patients with tumor size < 5 cm, no lymph node metastasis, no distant metastasis and lower tumor stages The mean survival time for patients in the AKR1B10-positive group was significantly higher compared with the AKR1B1-negative group. The 5-year survival rate for the AKR1B10-positive group was also significantly higher than for the AKR1B1-negative group. Cox regression analysis revealed that AKR1B10 expression is an independent prognostic factor of GC. Conclusions Expression of AKR1B10 in gastric cancer was significantly associated with tumor size, lymph node metastasis, distance metastasis and TNM stage, and AKR1B10 may be a good prognostic indicator in gastric cancer.
    European journal of surgical oncology: the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology 01/2013; 40(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ejso.2013.12.014 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) are mostly monomeric enzymes which fold into a highly conserved (α/β)8 barrel, while their substrate specificity and inhibitor selectivity are determined by interaction with residues located in three highly variable external loops. The closely related human enzymes aldose reductase (AR or AKR1B1) and AKR1B10 are of biomedical interest because of their involvement in secondary diabetic complications (AR) and in cancer, e.g. hepatocellular carcinoma and smoking-related lung cancer (AKR1B10). After characterization of the IC50 values of both AKRs with a series of polyhalogenated compounds, 2,2',3,3',5,5',6,6'-octafluoro-4,4'-biphenyldiol (JF0064) was identified as a lead inhibitor of both enzymes with a new scaffold (a 1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diol). An ultrahigh-resolution X-ray structure of the AR-NADP(+)-JF0064 complex has been determined at 0.85 Å resolution, allowing it to be observed that JF0064 interacts with the catalytic residue Tyr48 through a negatively charged hydroxyl group (i.e. the acidic phenol). The non-competitive inhibition pattern observed for JF0064 with both enzymes suggests that this acidic hydroxyl group is also present in the case of AKR1B10. Moreover, the combination of surface lysine methylation and the introduction of K125R and V301L mutations enabled the determination of the X-ray crystallographic structure of the corresponding AKR1B10-NADP(+)-JF0064 complex. Comparison of the two structures has unveiled some important hints for subsequent structure-based drug-design efforts.
    Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography 03/2014; 70(Pt 3):889-903. DOI:10.1107/S1399004713033452 · 7.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Upregulation of aldo-keto reductase 1B10 (AKR1B10) through the mitogenic activator protein-1 signaling pathway might promote hepatocarcinogenesis and tumor progression. The goal of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of AKR1B10 protein expression in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after surgery. Methods: A tissue microarray was used to detect the expression level of AKR1B10 protein in tumors from 255 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent curative hepatectomy. The impact of AKR1B10 expression on the survival of patients was analyzed. The median follow-up period was 119.8 months. Results: High AKR1B10 protein expression was observed in 125 of the 255 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (49.0%). High AKR1B10 expression was significantly associated with a lack of invasion of the major portal vein (p=0.022), a lack of intrahepatic metastasis (p=0.010), lower the American Joint Committee on Cancer T stage (p=0.016), lower the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage (p=0.006), and lower a-fetoprotein levels (p=0.020). High AKR1B10 expression was also correlated with a lack of early recurrence (p=0.022). Multivariate analyses of survival revealed that intrahepatic metastases and lower albumin levels were independent predictors of both shorter recurrence-free survival and shorter disease-specific survival. High AKR1B10 expression was an independent predictor of both longer recurrence-free survival (p=0.024) and longer disease-specific survival (p=0.046). Conclusions: High AKR1B10 protein expression might be useful as a marker of a favorable prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after curative hepatectomy.
    Gut and liver 10/2014; 8(6). DOI:10.5009/gnl13406 · 1.49 Impact Factor

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