Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles in Human Cells

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543, Singapore 117597.
ACS Nano (Impact Factor: 12.88). 03/2009; 3(2):279-90. DOI: 10.1021/nn800596w
Source: PubMed


Silver nanoparticles (Ag-np) are being used increasingly in wound dressings, catheters, and various household products due to their antimicrobial activity. The toxicity of starch-coated silver nanoparticles was studied using normal human lung fibroblast cells (IMR-90) and human glioblastoma cells (U251). The toxicity was evaluated using changes in cell morphology, cell viability, metabolic activity, and oxidative stress. Ag-np reduced ATP content of the cell caused damage to mitochondria and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a dose-dependent manner. DNA damage, as measured by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) and cytokinesis blocked micronucleus assay (CBMN), was also dose-dependent and more prominent in the cancer cells. The nanoparticle treatment caused cell cycle arrest in G(2)/M phase possibly due to repair of damaged DNA. Annexin-V propidium iodide (PI) staining showed no massive apoptosis or necrosis. The transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis indicated the presence of Ag-np inside the mitochondria and nucleus, implicating their direct involvement in the mitochondrial toxicity and DNA damage. A possible mechanism of toxicity is proposed which involves disruption of the mitochondrial respiratory chain by Ag-np leading to production of ROS and interruption of ATP synthesis, which in turn cause DNA damage. It is anticipated that DNA damage is augmented by deposition, followed by interactions of Ag-np to the DNA leading to cell cycle arrest in the G(2)/M phase. The higher sensitivity of U251 cells and their arrest in G(2)/M phase could be explored further for evaluating the potential use of Ag-np in cancer therapy.

Download full-text


Available from: Suresh Valiyaveettil,
    • "Few reports have also suggested that the SNPs induce toxicity effects and kill mammalian cells [46] [47] [48]. Studies by various authors also showed that any concentration below ≤ 100 μg/mL can be toxic to human cells which can result in the disruption or reduction of enzymes, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity induced nucleic acid aberrations [47] [49]. Thus inferring that SNPs synthesized using coffee seed extract can also be used effectively for several medical and engineering applications [45] "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A novel green source was opted to synthesize silver nanoparticles using dried roasted Coffea arabica seed extract. Bio-reduction of silver was complete when the mixture (AgNO3 + extract) changed its color from light to dark brown. UV–vis spectroscopy result showed maximum adsorption at 459 nm, which represents the characteristic surface plasmon resonance of nanosilver. X-ray crystal analysis showed that the silver nanoparticles are highly crystalline and exhibit a cubic, face centered lattice with characteristic (111), (200), (220) and (311) orientations. Particles exhibit spherical and ellipsoidal shaped structures as observed from TEM. Composition analysis obtained from SEM–EDXA confirmed the presence of elemental signature of silver. FTIR results recorded a downward shift of absorption bands between 800–1500 cm− 1 indicting the formation of silver nanoparticles. The mean particle size investigated using DLS was found to be in between 20–30 nm respectively. Anti-bacterial activity of silver nanoparticles on E. coli and S. aureus demonstrated diminished bacterial growth with the development of well-defined inhibition zones.
    Materials Science and Engineering C 01/2016; 58:36-43. DOI:10.1016/j.msec.2015.08.018 · 3.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "As marvelous development in science and technology, evergrown demanding use of silver in industrial activities has resulted in increasing silver content of ecological samples and biological organisms [1] [2] [3]. The toxicity of silver has gradually been realized and its corresponding potential to hamper human health has drawn focused attention in recent years. "
    Q Y Liu · Liu · F Yuan · H Zhuang · C Wang · D Shi · Y K Xu · X Jiang ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A new area of simple and effective wurtzite gallium nitride (GaN) electrodes for silver (I) detection using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) has been demonstrated. GaN electrode has exhibited obvious advantages over mercury (Hg) in silver ion evolution for its nontoxicity and wide range of anodic potential. ASV tests confirm GaN electrodes exhibit desirable stability and very sensitive response to Ag(I) in aque-ous solution. Comparing with GaN nanostructures, bulky GaN thin film shows superior electrochemical sensitivity with Ag(I) detection limit as low as 10 ppb. However, modified GaN nanostructure electrodes with better conductivity are supposed to have more promising applications in trace silver ion detection.
    Applied Surface Science 11/2015; 356:1058-1063. DOI:10.1016/j.apsusc.2015.08.167 · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Dispersed nanosilver in suspension/colloid is prevalently believed to be eukaryote toxic, with analogous risks of cellular uptake, oxidative stress, and membrane damage compared to that for bacteria [8] [9]. However, our knowledge about the biological outcomes of mammalian cells/tissues contacting directly with AgNP-bearing surfaces is thus far limited. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The therapeutic applications of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against biomedical device-associated infections (BAI), by local delivery, are encountered with risks of detachment, instability and nanotoxicity in physiological milieus. To firmly anchor AgNPs onto modified biomaterial surfaces through tight physicochemical interactions would potentially relieve these concerns. Herein, we present a strategy for hierarchical TiO2/Ag coating, in an attempt to endow medical titanium (Ti) with anticorrosion and antibacterial properties whilst maintaining normal biological functions. In brief, by harnessing the adhesion and reactivity of bioinspired polydopamine, silver nanoparticles were easily immobilized onto peripheral surface and incorporated into interior cavity of a micro/nanoporous TiO2 ceramic coating in situ grown from template Ti. The resulting coating protected the substrate well from corrosion and gave a sustained release of Ag(+) up to 28 d. An interesting germicidal effect, termed "trap-killing", was observed against Staphylococcus aureus strain. The multiple osteoblast responses, i.e. adherence, spreading, proliferation, and differentiation, were retained normal or promoted, via a putative surface-initiated self-regulation mechanism. After subcutaneous implantation for a month, the coated specimens elicited minimal, comparable inflammatory responses relative to the control. Moreover, this simple and safe functionalization strategy manifested a good degree of flexibility towards three-dimensional sophisticated objects. Expectedly, it can become a prospective bench to bedside solution to current challenges facing orthopedics.
    Biomaterials 10/2015; 75:203-222. DOI:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2015.10.035 · 8.56 Impact Factor
Show more