A higher prevalence of glucose abnormalities has been reported in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection compared to patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, previous studies considered some confounding factors and ignored others, which might influence the comparative risk assessment between HBV and HCV infections. Fasting plasma glucose concentration, severity of liver disease and viral load were determined in 220 patients with HCV genotype 4 infection, and 200 patients with HBV infection. Patients completing antiviral therapy were followed-up, and the fasting plasma glucose levels were determined in patients with and without sustained virological response. The prevalence of glucose abnormalities in HCV infection (41%) was significantly higher than that in HBV infection (16%). However, when controlling the severity of liver disease and other risk factors, the prevalence of glucose abnormalities in patients with HCV infection was comparable to that in patients with HBV infection. After attaining of sustained virological response, a decrease of the median fasting plasma glucose value was observed only in chronic hepatitis C. In the group of patients with normal fasting plasma glucose levels, an association of nonsustained virological response with the development of impaired fasting glucose was only observed in chronic hepatitis C. The severity of liver disease was a common predictor of impaired fasting glucose in hepatitis B and C infections. These results indicate that high prevalence of glucose abnormalities can be associated with HBV- and HCV-related liver disease, and that clearance of HCV, but not HBV, may improve glucose metabolism.
"The proportions of patients with normal glucose baseline were 40.34%. Of these studies, two did not report the proportion of HCV genotype1 , . The prevalence rate of infection with genotype 1 was 72.55%, ranging between 37.5–100%. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a significant association between effects of interferon-alpha treatment and the risk of developing hyperglycemia in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis on the basis of published observational studies was to estimate risk of hyperglycemia in chronic HCV patients who had acquired sustained virological responses (SVR) compared to those without SVR.
We identified eligible studies by searching the relevant databases, including PubMed, Embase, and Google, for papers published between January 1990 and April 2011. The selection of eligible papers was carried out using a scoring system based on guidelines and inclusion criteria that were established before the articles were identified. Heterogeneity across studies was determined and the meta-analysis was performed following standard guidelines.
Eleven eligible studies provided data of the incidence of hyperglycemia in chronic hepatitis C patients with SVR in comparison with patients without these conditions. The results demonstrated that SVR was associated with a lower risk of hyperglycemia (odds ratio = 0.497, 95% confidence interval 0.421-0.587, p<0.001), and there was no evidence of any substantial between-study heterogeneity (I(2) = 24.4%, p>0.1). Results of meta-regression showed patients with different baseline glucose (normal vs. abnormal) and patients with co-infected HIV (presence vs. absence) as the sources of low heterogeneity (p<0.15).The lowest risk of hyperglycemia was described in patients with normal glucose baseline (OR = 0.402, 95%CI 0.297-0.543, p<0.001). This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis performed to examine the association between SVR and risk of hyperglycemia in patients with HCV infection. Our meta-analysis suggests that SVR reduce the risk of developing glucose abnormalities, especially in patients with normal glucose baseline.
PLoS ONE 06/2012; 7(6):e39272. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0039272 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This work first briefly discusses complexity and complex systems. Then it points out that a virtual enterprise is an open complex giant system and in essence a certain result of enterprise's adaptation to the environmental changes. The problems in enterprise cooperation are studied, then the framework of metasynthetic engineering platform for virtual enterprise is given to facilitate enterprise cooperation and management. The method and process of decision making for virtual enterprise are discussed. The key feature of this platform - human-machine cooperation - is also analyzed.
Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Design, 2004. Proceedings. The 8th International Conference on; 06/2004
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Epidemiological data clearly indicate a link between chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and disturbed glucose homeostasis. The prevalences of both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and insulin resistance (IR) are higher among those chronically infected with hepatitis C when compared with the general population and those with other causes of chronic liver disease. Both IR and diabetes are associated with adverse outcomes across all stages of CHC including the liver transplant population. The adverse effects that directly influence patient outcome are reduced responsiveness to antiviral therapy, more rapid progression of fibrosis to cirrhosis and a higher incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Although both viral and host factors are known to contribute to IR (and therefore the risk of T2DM), there is a paucity of evidence to support interventions targeting IR with pharmacotherapy or lifestyle intervention. The purpose of this review is to examine the impact of abnormalities of glucose homeostasis in CHC, and in so doing, to raise a number of questions. How do we identify those at risk of diabetes in CHC? Can we reduce the incidence of hepatoma and reduce transplant-related morbidity and mortality by preventing or treating diabetes? Can we improve the response to antiviral therapy by pretreating IR and T2DM in treatment candidates? Ultimately, can we cure two diseases, diabetes and CHC, with one treatment?
Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 03/2010; 30(3):356-64. DOI:10.1111/j.1478-3231.2009.02185.x · 4.85 Impact Factor
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