Keng, VW, Villanueva, A, Chiang, DY, Dupuy, AJ, Ryan, BJ, Matise, I et al.. A conditional transposon-based insertional mutagenesis screen for genes associated with mouse hepatocellular carcinoma. Nat Biotechnol 27: 264-274

Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.
Nature Biotechnology (Impact Factor: 41.51). 03/2009; 27(3):264-74. DOI: 10.1038/nbt.1526
Source: PubMed


We describe a system that permits conditional mobilization of a Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase allele by Cre recombinase to induce cancer specifically in a tissue of interest. To demonstrate its potential for developing tissue-specific models of cancer in mice, we limit SB transposition to the liver by placing Cre expression under the control of an albumin enhancer/promoter sequence and screen for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-associated genes. From 8,060 nonredundant insertions cloned from 68 tumor nodules and comparative analysis with data from human HCC samples, we identify 19 loci strongly implicated in causing HCC. These encode genes, such as EGFR and MET, previously associated with HCC and others, such as UBE2H, that are potential new targets for treating this neoplasm. Our system, which could be modified to drive transposon-based insertional mutagenesis wherever tissue-specific Cre expression is possible, promises to enhance understanding of cancer genomes and identify new targets for therapeutic development.

Download full-text


Available from: Ilze Matise, Oct 04, 2015
25 Reads
  • Source
    • "59 out of 92 (64%) integrations supported by chimeric fusions were confirmed by DNA analyses (Figure 1D and E), while the majority of these (~90%) showed an expected distribution close to enhancer midpoints (Figure 6). While the number of integrations in only four tumors may seem high comparably high numbers of integrations in transposon and retroviral tumor models have been reported previously [45,66]: e.g. deep sequencing analysis of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-induced tumors, revealed an average of 27 integrations per tumor, a number that was significantly higher when including integrations supported by only a single chimeric sequencing read [45]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Insertional mutagenesis screens of retrovirus-induced mouse tumors have proven valuable in human cancer research and for understanding adverse effects of retroviral-based gene therapies. In previous studies, the assignment of mouse genes to individual retroviral integration sites has been based on close proximity and expression patterns of annotated genes at target positions in the genome. We here employed next-generation RNA sequencing to map retroviral-mouse chimeric junctions genome-wide, and to identify local patterns of transcription activation in T-lymphomas induced by the murine leukemia gamma-retrovirus SL3-3. Moreover, to determine epigenetic integration preferences underlying long-range gene activation by retroviruses, the colocalization propensity with common epigenetic enhancer markers (H3K4Me1 and H3K27Ac) of 6,117 integrations derived from end-stage tumors of more than 2,000 mice was examined. Results We detected several novel mechanisms of retroviral insertional mutagenesis: bidirectional activation of mouse transcripts on opposite sides of a provirus including transcription of unannotated mouse sequence; sense/antisense-type activation of genes located on opposite DNA strands; tandem-type activation of distal genes that are positioned adjacently on the same DNA strand; activation of genes that are not the direct integration targets; combination-type insertional mutagenesis, in which enhancer activation, alternative chimeric splicing and retroviral promoter insertion are induced by a single retrovirus. We also show that irrespective of the distance to transcription start sites, the far majority of retroviruses in end-stage tumors colocalize with H3K4Me1 and H3K27Ac-enriched regions in murine lymphoid tissues. Conclusions We expose novel retrovirus-induced host transcription activation patterns that reach beyond a single and nearest annotated gene target. Awareness of this previously undescribed layer of complexity may prove important for elucidation of adverse effects in retroviral-based gene therapies. We also show that wild-type gamma-retroviruses are frequently positioned at enhancers, suggesting that integration into regulatory regions is specific and also subject to positive selection for sustaining long-range gene activation in end-stage tumors. Altogether, this study should prove useful for extrapolating adverse outcomes of retroviral vector therapies, and for understanding fundamental cellular regulatory principles and retroviral biology.
    Retrovirology 05/2014; 11(1):36. DOI:10.1186/1742-4690-11-36 · 4.19 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "To minimize such vector-induced artifacts, we began marking lineages by hydrodynamic delivery of a naked plasmid that would express only Cre protein. By this approach, mice are rapidly injected via the tail vein with a large volume of saline containing the plasmid [22], [23]. The ensuing hydrodynamic stress on the liver induces transient pores in hepatocytes, which allows entry of the plasmid [24]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cre-responsive fluorescent marker alleles are powerful tools for cell lineage tracing in mice; however their utility is limited by regulation of Cre activity. When targeting hepatocytes, hydrodynamic delivery of a Cre-expression plasmid can convert Cre-responsive alleles without inducing the intracellular or systemic antiviral responses often associated with viral-derived Cre-expression vectors. In this method, rapid high-volume intravenous inoculation induces hepatocyte-targeted uptake of extracellular molecules. Here we tested whether hydrodynamic delivery of Cre protein or Cre fused to the HIV-TAT cell-penetrating peptide could convert Cre-responsive reporters in hepatocytes of mice. Hydrodynamic delivery of 2 nmol of either Cre or TAT-Cre protein converted the reporter allele in 5 to 20% of hepatocytes. Neither protein gave detectable Cre activity in endothelia, non-liver organs, or non-hepatocyte cells in liver. Using mice homozygous for a Cre-responsive marker that directs red- (Cre-naïve) or green- (Cre-converted) fluorescent proteins to the nucleus, we assessed sub-saturation Cre-activity. One month after hydrodynamic inoculation with Cre protein, 58% of hepatocyte nuclei that were green were also red, indicating that less than half of the hepatocytes that had obtained enough Cre to convert one marker allele to green were able to convert all alleles. For comparison, one month after hydrodynamic delivery of a Cre-expression plasmid with a weak promoter, only 26% of the green nuclei were also red. Our results show that hydrodynamic delivery of Cre protein allows rapid allelic conversion in hepatocytes, but Cre-activity is sub-saturating so many cells will not convert multiple Cre-responsive alleles.
    PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e91219. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0091219 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "M – 100 bp ladder, C – no DNA controls. For primer sequences, see Additional file 7 and Keng et al. [27]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Medulloblastomas, the most frequent malignant brain tumours affecting children, comprise at least 4 distinct clinicogenetic subgroups. Aberrant sonic hedgehog (SHH) signalling is observed in approximately 25% of tumours and defines one subgroup. Although alterations in SHH pathway genes (e.g. PTCH1, SUFU) are observed in many of these tumours, high throughput genomic analyses have identified few other recurring mutations. Here, we have mutagenised the Ptch+/- murine tumour model using the Sleeping Beauty transposon system to identify additional genes and pathways involved in SHH subgroup medulloblastoma development. Results: Mutagenesis significantly increased medulloblastoma frequency and identified 17 candidate cancer genes, including orthologs of genes somatically mutated (PTEN, CREBBP) or associated with poor outcome (PTEN, MYT1L) in the human disease. Strikingly, these candidate genes were enriched for transcription factors (p=2x10-5), the majority of which (6/7; Crebbp, Myt1L, Nfia, Nfib, Tead1 and Tgif2) were linked within a single regulatory network enriched for genes associated with a differentiated neuronal phenotype. Furthermore, activity of this network varied significantly between the human subgroups, was associated with metastatic disease, and predicted poor survival specifically within the SHH subgroup of tumours. Igf2, previously implicated in medulloblastoma, was the most differentially expressed gene in murine tumours with network perturbation, and network activity in both mouse and human tumours was characterised by enrichment for multiple gene-sets indicating increased cell proliferation, IGF signalling, MYC target upregulation, and decreased neuronal differentiation. Conclusions: Collectively, our data support a model of medulloblastoma development in SB-mutagenised Ptch+/- mice which involves disruption of a novel transcription factor network leading to Igf2 upregulation, proliferation of GNPs, and tumour formation. Moreover, our results identify rational therapeutic targets for SHH subgroup tumours, alongside prognostic biomarkers for the identification of poor-risk SHH patients.
    07/2013; 1(1):35. DOI:10.1186/2051-5960-1-35
Show more