Flexibility of solid-phase microextraction for passive sampling of atmospheric pesticides.
ABSTRACT For low volatile pesticides, the applications of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) as an air sampler were reported with sampling time chosen in the linear stage of the sorption kinetics because of long equilibrium time. In these pre-equilibrium conditions, sampling rates (SRs) expressed as the volume of air sampled by the SPME sampler per unit of time, were used to estimate analytes concentrations in air. In the present study, to achieve good extraction performance and accurate calibration, the sorption kinetics of several pesticides with SPME were investigated in detail, with a focus on parameters influencing SRs. Linear air velocity was found to be the main parameter affecting SRs. For exposed fibers, with air velocities below 20-25 cms(-1), SRs increased with increasing air velocity. When linear air velocity was equal to or greater than 25-30 cms(-1), it had little effect on SRs. To improve the flexibility of SPME, different configurations of SPME were compared, i.e. different lengths of fibers exposed, retracted fibers, exposed fibers with grids. SRs were linearly proportional to exposed lengths of fibers. Using grids, lower SRs and wider calibration time range were achieved. SRs for retracted fibers were the lowest among the different experimented configurations. The accuracy of calibration was improved and more flexibility of SPME was provided.