Heart failure is more prevalent among African Americans than in the general population. Metabolomic studies among African Americans may efficiently identify novel biomarkers of heart failure. We used untargeted methods to measure 204 stable serum metabolites and evaluated their associations with incident heart failure hospitalization (n = 276) after a median follow-up of 20 years (1987-2008) by using Cox regression in data from 1,744 African Americans aged 45-64 years without heart failure at baseline from the Jackson, Mississippi, field center of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. After adjustment for established risk factors, we found that 16 metabolites (6 named with known structural identities and 10 unnamed with unknown structural identities, the latter denoted by using the format X-12345) were associated with incident heart failure (P < 0.0004 based on a modified Bonferroni procedure). Of the 6 named metabolites, 4 are involved in amino acid metabolism, 1 (prolylhydroxyproline) is a dipeptide, and 1 (erythritol) is a sugar alcohol. After additional adjustment for kidney function, 2 metabolites remained associated with incident heart failure (for metabolite X-11308, hazard ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.65, 0.86; for metabolite X-11787, hazard ratio = 1.23, 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.37). Further structural analysis revealed X-11308 to be a dihydroxy docosatrienoic acid and X-11787 to be an isoform of either hydroxyleucine or hydroxyisoleucine. Our metabolomic analysis revealed novel biomarkers associated with incident heart failure independent of traditional risk factors.
"Luan et al.  2013 Case–control (23 HF and 23 CAD patients) Free fatty acids, sphingolipids and amino acid derivatives OPLS-DA model analyzed by LC–MS Lipid molecules associated with energy metabolism and signaling pathways significantly differed between the two groups (free fatty acids, sphingolipids and amino acid derivatives). Zheng et al.  2013 Prospective observational (1744 African Americans from the ARIC study) 204 stable serum metabolites Not specified MS After a median follow-up of 20 years, incident heart failure was strong associated with amino acid isoform: dihydroxy docosatrienoic acid (HR 0.75 [CI 95% 0.65–0.86]; p b 0.05) and an isoform of either hydroxyleucine or hydroxyisoleucine (HR 1.23 [CI 95% 1.10–1.37]; "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insights from the “-omics” science have recently emphasized the need to implement an overall strategy in medical research. Here, the development of Systems Medicine has been indicated as a potential tool for clinical translation of basic research discoveries. Systems Medicine also gives the opportunity of improving different steps in medical practice, from diagnosis to healthcare management, including clinical research. The development of Systems Medicine is still hampered however by several challenges, the main one being the development of computational tools adequate to record, analyze and share a large amount of disparate data. In addition, available informatics tools appear not yet fully suitable for the challenge because they are not standardized, not universally available, or with ethical/legal concerns. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a very promising area for translating Systems Medicine into clinical practice. By developing clinically applied technologies, the collection and analysis of data may improve CV risk stratification and prediction. Standardized models for data recording and analysis can also greatly broaden data exchange, thus promoting a uniform management of CVD patients also useful for clinical research. This advance however requires a great organizational effort by both physicians and health institutions, as well as the overcoming of ethical problems. This narrative review aims at providing an update on the state-of-art knowledge in the area of Systems Medicine as applied to CVD, focusing on current critical issues, providing a road map for its practical implementation.
European Journal of Internal Medicine 10/2014; 25(9). DOI:10.1016/j.ejim.2014.09.015 · 2.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Development of hypertension is influenced by genes, environmental effects, and their interactions, and the human metabolome is a measurable manifestation of gene-environment interaction. We explored the metabolomic antecedents of developing incident hypertension in a sample of blacks, a population with a high prevalence of hypertension and its comorbidities. We examined 896 black normotensives (565 women; aged, 45-64 years) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, whose metabolome was measured in serum collected at the baseline examination and analyzed by high-throughput methods. The analyses presented here focus on 204 stably measured metabolites during a period of 4 to 6 weeks. Weibull parametric models considering interval censored data were used to assess the hazard ratio for incident hypertension. We used a modified Bonferroni correction accounting for the correlations among metabolites to define a threshold for statistical significance (P<3.9×10(-4)). During 10 years of follow-up, 38% of baseline normotensives developed hypertension (n=344). With adjustment for traditional risk factors and estimated glomerular filtration rate, each +1SD difference in baseline 4-hydroxyhippurate, a product of gut microbial fermentation, was associated with 17% higher risk of hypertension (P=2.5×10(-4)), which remained significant after adjusting for both baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P=3.8×10(-4)). After principal component analyses, a sex steroids pattern was significantly associated with risk of incident hypertension (highest versus lowest quintile hazard ratio, 1.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.82; P for trend, 0.03), and stratified analyses suggested that this association was consistent in both sexes. Metabolomic analyses identify novel pathways in the pathogenesis of hypertension.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both the prevalence and incidence of heart failure (HF) are increasing, especially among African Americans, but no large-scale, genome-wide association study (GWAS) of HF-related metabolites has been reported. We sought to identify novel genetic variants that are associated with metabolites previously reported to relate to HF incidence. GWASs of three metabolites identified previously as risk factors for incident HF (pyroglutamine, dihydroxy docosatrienoic acid, and X-11787, being either hydroxy-leucine or hydroxy-isoleucine) were performed in 1,260 African Americans free of HF at the baseline examination of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. A significant association on chromosome 5q33 (rs10463316, MAF = 0.358, P-value = 1.92 × 10(-10) ) was identified for pyroglutamine. One region on chromosome 2p13 contained a nonsynonymous substitution in N-acetyltransferase 8 (NAT8) was associated with X-11787 (rs13538, MAF = 0.481, P-value = 1.71 × 10(-23) ). The smallest P-value for dihydroxy docosatrienoic acid was rs4006531 on chromosome 8q24 (MAF = 0.400, P-value = 6.98 × 10(-7) ). None of the above SNPs were individually associated with incident HF, but a genetic risk score (GRS) created by summing the most significant risk alleles from each metabolite detected 11% greater risk of HF per allele. In summary, we identified three loci associated with previously reported HF-related metabolites. Further use of metabolomics technology will facilitate replication of these findings in independent samples.
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