Improvement of depressive behaviors by nefiracetam is associated with activation of CaM kinases in olfactory bulbectomized mice.
ABSTRACT Olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) mice exhibit depressive-like behaviors as assessed by the tail suspension test (TST) and the forced swim test (FST). Interestingly, chronic intraperitoneal administration (1 mg/kg/day) of nefiracetam (DM-9384), a prototype cognitive enhancer, significantly improved depressive-like behaviors as well as spatial reference memory assessed by Y-maze task. As previously reported (Moriguchi, S., Han, F., Nakagawasai, O., Tadano, T., Fukunaga, K., 2006. Decreased calcium/calmoculin-dependent protein kinase II and protein kinase C activities mediate impairment of hippocampal long-term potentiation in the olfactory bulbectomized mice. J. Neurochem. 97, 22-29), decreased activities of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the hippocampal CA1 region and amygdala were observed in OBX mice. Nefiracetam treatment (1 mg/kg/day) significantly elevated CaMKII but not ERK activities in the amygdala, prefrontal cortex and hippocampal CA1 regions. In addition, we found an elevation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex but not in the hippocampal CA1 region. Increased CREB phosphorylation was associated with activation of CaMKI and CaMKIV as well as CaMKII in these regions. Taken together, in addition to CaMKII, CaMKI and CaMKIV activation mediated by nefiracetam treatment might mediate CREB phosphorylation following chronic nefiracetam treatment, thereby eliciting an anti-depressive and cognition-enhancing effect on OBX mice.
- SourceAvailable from: Alessandro Barbon[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: CaM kinase II, a regulator of synaptic plasticity, is implicated in pathophysiology and pharmacology of psychiatric disorders. Chronic treatment with antidepressants desipramine and reboxetine up-regulated CaM kinase II in neuronal cell bodies of hippocampus. mRNA/protein expression for alphaCaM kinase II was unchanged, whereas Thr phosphorylation was increased in pyramidal/granular cell bodies, suggesting that increased phosphorylation is responsible for kinase activation. Short-term treatment of neuronal cultures with reboxetine reduced kinase activation in a concentration-dependent manner. The short-term inhibitory effect of reboxetine suggests that kinase up-regulation during antidepressant drug treatment is an adaptive response compensating for initial functional down-regulation.Neuroreport 11/2004; 15(15):2393-6. · 1.40 Impact Factor
- The Lancet 12/1998; 352(9142):1754-5. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) has been shown to mediate transcriptional activation of genes in response to both cAMP and calcium influx signal transduction pathways. The roles of two multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, CaMKIV and CaMKII, were examined in transient transfection studies that utilized either the full-length or the constitutively active forms of these kinases. The results indicate that CaMKIV is much more potent than CaMKII in activating CREB in three different cell lines. It was also found in these studies that Ser133 of CREB is essential for its activation by CaMKIV. Because both CaMKII and CaMKIV can phosphorylate CREB, we pursued further the mechanism by which CaMKII and CaMKIV differentially regulate CREB activity. Mutagenesis studies and phosphopeptide mapping analysis demonstrated that in vitro, CaMKIV phosphorylates CREB at Ser133 only, whereas CaMKII phosphorylates CREB at Ser133 and a second site, Ser142. Transient transfection studies revealed that phosphorylation of Ser142 by CaMKII blocks the activation of CREB that would otherwise occur when Ser133 is phosphorylated. When Ser142 was mutated to alanine, CREB was activated by CaMKII, as well as by CaMKIV. Furthermore, mutation of Ser142 to alanine enhanced the ability of Ca2+ influx to activate CREB, suggesting a physiological role for the phosphorylation of Ser142 in modulation of CREB activity. These data provide evidence for a new mechanism for regulation of CREB activity involving phosphorylation of a negative regulatory site in the transcriptional activation domain. The studies also provide new insights into possible interactions between the cAMP and Ca2+ signaling pathways in the regulation of transcription. In particular, changes in intracellular Ca2+ have the potential to either inhibit or augment the ability of cAMP to stimulate transcription, depending on the presence of specific forms of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases.Genes & Development 12/1994; 8(21):2527-39. · 12.44 Impact Factor