Impact of buttermilk consumption on plasma lipids and surrogate markers of cholesterol homeostasis in men and women.
ABSTRACT Sphingolipids (SL) are important components of the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) found in buttermilk. While studies in animal models suggest that dietary SL may have cholesterol-lowering properties, data in human are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of buttermilk consumption on plasma lipids and surrogate markers of cholesterol (C) homeostasis in humans.
Men and women (n = 34) with serum LDL-C <5.0 mmol/L at screening (mean LDL-C = 3.8 mmol/L) were recruited in this double-blinded randomized crossover placebo controlled study. Their diets were supplemented with 45 g/d of buttermilk and with 45 g/d of a macro/micronutrient matched placebo (4 weeks each in random order). Serum lipid concentrations and surrogate markers of cholesterol homeostasis were measured post diet and compared using mixed models for repeated measures. Consumption of buttermilk led to reduction in serum cholesterol (-3.1%, P = 0.019), LDL-C (-3.1%, P = 0.057) and triacylglycerol (-10.7%, P = 0.007). Buttermilk consumption increased plasma lathosterol concentrations (+12.1%, P = 0.001), but multiple regression analysis indicated that variations in β-sitosterol concentrations (P = 0.002) were the only significant predictor of the LDL-C response to buttermilk consumption.
Buttermilk consumption may be associated with reduced cholesterol concentrations in men and women, primarily through inhibition of intestinal absorption of cholesterol.
This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01248026.
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ABSTRACT: Groups of 10 to 13 healthy volunteers were provided with 11 supplements of 2% butterfat milk (2% milk), whole milk, skim milk, yogurt, buttermilk, and sweet acidophilus milk daily for a 3-wk period. Despite increases in caloric intakes on all supplements, no significant increases were found in total, low-density, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. A significant weight gain was seen in subjects taking yogurt and acidophilus groups; these were the only two groups showing significant rises in triglyceride levels. These results in normal volunteers focus attention on the current practice of recommending only skim or 2% milk for hyperlipidemic individuals.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 01/1983; 36(6):1106-11. · 6.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effects of National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Step 2 diets on plasma lipoprotein profiles in 72 men [mean (+/- SD) age: 44 +/- 15 y, range: 19-81 y] and 48 women (mean age: 50 +/- 21 y, range: 21-78 y) participating in five previously published studies were examined. Subjects were placed on a baseline diet similar to an average American diet (35-41% total fat, 13-16% saturated fat, 31-45 mg cholesterol/MJ) and then on an NCEP Step 2 diet (18-29% total fat, 4-7% saturated fat, 11-20 mg cholesterol/MJ) under isoenergetic conditions. All food and drink were provided. Compared with the baseline diet, consumption of the NCEP Step 2 diets was associated with significant decreases in concentrations of low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (-18.9% and -15.6%, respectively) and high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (-17.0% and -11.2%, respectively) in both men and women. Men with the apolipoprotein (apo) E 3,4 phenotype had a significantly greater decrease in LDL cholesterol (-24.2%) with the NCEP Step 2 diets than men with the apo E 3,3 phenotype (-17.7%). Men with the apo A-IV 1,2 phenotype tended to have less LDL cholesterol lowering (-12.8%) than men with the apo A-IV 1,1 phenotype (-19.6%), but this difference was not significant. No differences were seen by apo E and A-IV phenotype in women. A large variability in lipid response to the diet was observed, with changes in LDL cholesterol ranging from +3% to -55% in men and and from +13% to -39% in women. Forty-eight percent of the variability in LDL-cholesterol response (in mmol/L) to the diet could be accounted for by baseline LDL concentrations and age in men, and 13% by age in women.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 04/1997; 65(3):823-30. · 6.50 Impact Factor
Article: Intestinal cholesterol absorption.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The strong association between intestinal cholesterol absorption and total plasma cholesterol level has renewed interest in the absorptive process and stimulated the generation of new animal models. Increasingly, new studies suggest that cholesterol absorption is genetically controlled and supports a protein-mediated mechanism for cholesterol uptake into the intestinal mucosal cell. Insights into potential mechanisms are predicted to lead to novel pharmacological approaches to inhibit cholesterol absorption.Current Opinion in Lipidology 09/1999; 10(4):315-20. · 5.84 Impact Factor