T(H)2 Cytokines from Malignant Cells Suppress T(H)1 Responses and Enforce a Global T(H)2 Bias in Leukemic Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma
ABSTRACT PURPOSE: In leukemic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (L-CTCL), malignant T cells accumulate in the blood and give rise to widespread skin inflammation. Patients have intense pruritus, increased immunoglobulin E (IgE), and decreased T-helper (TH)-1 responses, and most die from infection. Depleting malignant T cells while preserving normal immunity is a clinical challenge. L-CTCL has been variably described as a malignancy of regulatory, TH2 and TH17 cells.EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We analyzed phenotype and cytokine production in malignant and benign L-CTCL T cells, characterized the effects of malignant T cells on healthy T cells, and studied the immunomodulatory effects of treatment modalities in patients with L-CTCL.RESULTS: Twelve out of 12 patients with L-CTCL overproduced TH2 cytokines. Remaining benign T cells were also strongly TH2 biased, suggesting a global TH2 skewing of the T-cell repertoire. Culture of benign T cells away from the malignant clone reduced TH2 and enhanced TH1 responses, but separate culture had no effect on malignant T cells. Coculture of healthy T cells with L-CTCL T cells reduced IFNγ production and neutralizing antibodies to interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 restored TH1 responses. In patients, enhanced TH1 responses were observed following a variety of treatment modalities that reduced malignant T-cell burden.CONCLUSIONS: A global TH2 bias exists in both benign and malignant T cells in L-CTCL and may underlie the infectious susceptibility of patients. TH2 cytokines from malignant cells strongly inhibited TH1 responses. Our results suggest that therapies that inhibit TH2 cytokine activity, by virtue of their ability to improve TH1 responses, may have the potential to enhance both anticancer and antipathogen responses. Clin Cancer Res; 1-9. ©2013 AACR.
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ABSTRACT: The skin of an adult human contains about 20 billion memory T cells. Epithelial barrier tissues are infiltrated by a combination of resident and recirculating T cells in mice, but the relative proportions and functional activities of resident versus recirculating T cells have not been evaluated in human skin. We discriminated resident from recirculating T cells in human-engrafted mice and lymphoma patients using alemtuzumab, a medication that depletes recirculating T cells from skin, and then analyzed these T cell populations in healthy human skin. All nonrecirculating resident memory T cells (TRM) expressed CD69, but most were CD4(+), CD103(-), and located in the dermis, in contrast to studies in mice. Both CD4(+) and CD8(+) CD103(+) TRM were enriched in the epidermis, had potent effector functions, and had a limited proliferative capacity compared to CD103(-) TRM. TRM of both types had more potent effector functions than recirculating T cells. We observed two distinct populations of recirculating T cells, CCR7(+)/L-selectin(+) central memory T cells (TCM) and CCR7(+)/L-selectin(-) T cells, which we term migratory memory T cells (TMM). Circulating skin-tropic TMM were intermediate in cytokine production between TCM and effector memory T cells. In patients with cutaneous T cell lymphoma, malignant TCM and TMM induced distinct inflammatory skin lesions, and TMM were depleted more slowly from skin after alemtuzumab, suggesting that TMM may recirculate more slowly. In summary, human skin is protected by four functionally distinct populations of T cells, two resident and two recirculating, with differing territories of migration and distinct functional activities. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.Science translational medicine 03/2015; 7(279):279ra39. DOI:10.1126/scitranslmed.3010302 · 14.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: New cancer immunotherapies mark progress in our understanding of tumor biology and harnessing the immune system's management of self. However, protein- and peptide-based vaccines are not yet consistently efficacious. Recent work uncovers principles governing the genesis of T helper type-restrictive immunity to self-antigens elicited by vaccine epitopes, enabling vaccines to skew the balance from tolerogenic Type II (Th2) to inflammatory Type I (Th1) T cells, and invigorating this cancer immunotherapeutic approach.OncoImmunology 10/2014; 3(9):e954971. DOI:10.4161/21624011.2014.954971 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pruritus is one of the cardinal symptoms found in patients with leukemic cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL). The nature of the pruritus experienced by CTCL patients is complex, involving different pathways and cell mediators, thus making it poorly responsive to conventional anti-itch therapies. Recent reports highlight the role of interleukin 31 (IL-31) as a novel cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of pruritus in atopic dermatitis and CTCL. Here we provide both in vivo and in vitro evidence suggesting that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors may mitigate itch through lowering of levels of IL-31-expressing T cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that chemokine receptor type-4 (CCR4)-bearing T cells are a main source of IL-31 in CTCL, and that neutralizing the IL-31 pathway through targeting of the CCR4-expressing T cells may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for symptomatic relief in CTCL. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.Clinical Immunology 03/2015; 158(1). DOI:10.1016/j.clim.2015.02.014 · 3.99 Impact Factor