Guggulsterone induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells and inhibits tumor growth in murine colorectal cancer xenografts.
ABSTRACT The plant sterol guggulsterone has recently been shown to have anti-tumorigenic potential. This study was designed to investigate the anti-tumor efficacy of guggulsterone and to elucidate its molecular mechanisms in colon cancer. Guggulsterone significantly increased apoptosis in HT-29 cells by activating caspases-3 and -8. Furthermore, guggulsterone decreased cIAP-1, cIAP-2, and Bcl-2 levels and increased the levels of truncated Bid, Fas, p-JNK, and p-c-Jun. The size of HT-29 xenograft tumors in guggulsterone-treated mice was significantly smaller than of the size of tumors in control mice. The present study suggests a potential therapeutic use for this compound in the treatment of colorectal cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States after cancers of the lung and the breast/prostate. While the incidence of CRC in the United States is among the highest in the world (approximately 52/100,000), its incidence in countries in India is among the lowest (approximately 7/100,000), suggesting that lifestyle factors may play a role in development of the disease. Whereas obesity, excessive alcohol consumption, a high-calorie diet, and a lack of physical activity promote this cancer, evidence indicates that foods containing folates, selenium, Vitamin D, dietary fiber, garlic, milk, calcium, spices, vegetables, and fruits are protective against CRC in humans. Numerous agents from "mother nature" (also called "nutraceuticals,") that have potential to both prevent and treat CRC have been identified. The most significant discoveries relate to compounds such as cardamonin, celastrol, curcumin, deguelin, diosgenin, thymoquinone, tocotrienol, ursolic acid, and zerumbone. Unlike pharmaceutical drugs, these agents modulate multiple targets, including transcription factors, growth factors, tumor cell survival factors, inflammatory pathways, and invasion and angiogenesis linked closely to CRC. We describe the potential of these dietary agents to suppress the growth of human CRC cells in culture and to inhibit tumor growth in animal models. We also describe clinical trials in which these agents have been tested for efficacy in humans. Because of their safety and affordability, these nutraceuticals provide a novel opportunity for treatment of CRC, an "old age" disease with an "age old" solution.Current Colorectal Cancer Reports 03/2013; 9(1):37-56.
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ABSTRACT: ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Dillenia suffruticosa (Family: Dilleniaceae) locally known as Simpoh air (Malay) has been reported to be used traditionally to treat cancerous growth. Therefore, the present study was attempted to investigate the antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of different parts (root, flower, fruit and leaf) of D. suffruticosa extracts. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In this study, direct solvent extraction (aqueous and methanol) from different parts of D. suffruticosa (root, flower, fruit and leaf) were carried out. Antioxidant activities of D. suffruticosa extract were determined by using DPPH, ABTS FRAP and β-carotene bleaching assays. Cytotoxicity and cell cycle arrest of the active extract were determined using MTT assay and flow cytometer, respectively. Sequential solvent extraction (hexane, DCM, EtOAc, and MeOH) were also carried out in root of D. suffruticosa to further evaluate the antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of the different solvent extracts. RESULTS: Methanol (MeOH) root extract showed the highest TPC, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities (especially towards HeLa) compared to others (P<0.05). Based on the results, sequential solvent extraction (hexane, DCM, EtOAc and MeOH) was carried out in the roots of D. suffruticosa. MeOH extract exhibited the highest antioxidant activities among others and significantly correlated (P<0.05) with TPC, suggesting the important contribution of phenolic compounds to its antioxidant activity. On the other hand, the DCM and EtOAc exhibited higher cytotoxic activity to selected cancer cells (HeLa, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, A549 and HT29) compared to others. In short, there is no established correlation between antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of D. suffruticosa extracts indicating that an agent with high antioxidant activities will not necessarily possesses good cytotoxic activities in return. Qualitative phytochemical screening of D. suffruticosa extracts suggested the presence of saponins, triterpenes, sterols, and polyphenolic compounds which are believed to contribute to the cytotoxic activities. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that the cytotoxicity of the active extracts in HeLa was due to the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G(2)/M.Journal of ethnopharmacology 01/2013; · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inadequate efficacy, high toxicity and drug resistance associated with existing chemotherapeutic agents mandate a need for novel therapeutic strategies for highly aggressive pancreatic cancer (PC). Guggulsterone (GS) exhibits potent anti-proliferative effects against various cancer cells and has emerged as an attractive candidate for use in complementary or preventive cancer therapies. However, the knowledge regarding the therapeutic potential of GS in PC is still limited and needs to be explored. We studied the effect of GS on PC cell growth, motility and invasion and elucidated the molecular mechanisms associated with its anti-tumor effects. Treatment of Capan1 and CD18/HPAF PC cells with GS resulted in dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition and decreased colony formation. Further, GS treatment induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest as assessed by Annexin-V assay and FACS analysis. Increased apoptosis following GS treatment was accompanied with Bad dephosphorylation and its translocation to the mitochondria, increased Caspase-3 activation, decreased Cyclin D1, Bcl-2 and xIAP expression. Additionally, GS treatment decreased motility and invasion of PC cells by disrupting cytoskeletal organization, inhibiting activation of FAK and Src signaling and decreased MMP9 expression. More importantly, GS treatment decreased mucin MUC4 expression in Capan1 and CD18/HPAF cells through transcriptional regulation by inhibiting Jak/STAT pathway. In conclusion, our results support the utility of GS as a potential therapeutic agent for lethal PC.Cancer letters 08/2013; · 4.86 Impact Factor