Evaluation of coagulation assays versus LC-MS/MS for determinations of dabigatran concentrations in plasma.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Dabigatran is an oral direct thrombin inhibitor for which routine laboratory monitoring is currently not recommended. However, there are situations in which measurements of the drug and its effect are desirable. We therefore compared and validated different coagulation methods for assessments of dabigatran in clinical samples in relation to measurements of plasma dabigatran, without the purpose of establishing effective and safe concentrations of dabigatran in plasma. METHODS: Samples were obtained from 70 atrial fibrillation patients treated with dabigatran etexilate. Plasma concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and were compared with coagulation methods Hemoclot thrombin inhibitors (HTI) and Ecarin clotting assay (ECA), as well as with prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). RESULTS: A wide range of dabigatran concentrations was determined by LC-MS/MS (<0.5-586 ng/mL). Correlations between LC-MS/MS results and estimated concentrations were excellent for both HTI and ECA overall (r(2) = 0.97 and 0.96 respectively, p < 0.0001), but the precision and variability of these assays were not fully satisfactory in the low range of dabigatran plasma concentrations, in which ECA performed better than HTI. aPTT performed poorly, and was normal (<40 s) even with dabigatran levels of 60 ng/mL. PT-INR was normal even at supratherapeutic dabigatran concentrations. CONCLUSION: LC-MS/MS is the gold standard for measurements of dabigatran in plasma. Alternatively, either HTI or ECA assays may be used, but neither of these assays is dependable when monitoring low levels or to infer total absence of dabigatran. The aPTT assay is relatively insensitive to dabigatran, and normal aPTT results may be observed even with therapeutic dabigatran concentrations.
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ABSTRACT: Dabigatran etexilate is an oral direct thrombin inhibitor. Although routine anticoagulation monitoring with dabigatran is not usually required, a simple and precise laboratory test to measure dabigatran concentrations in patient plasma may be useful in certain clinical circumstances, such as emergency situations. The HEMOCLOT(®) Thrombin Inhibitors assay has demonstrated accurate and precise determination of dabigatran concentrations within a range of 50-500ng/ml. The objective of this study was to assess comparability of dabigatran concentrations determined by HEMOCLOT(®) and by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in plasma samples from human volunteers with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing regular haemodialysis (HD) during a Phase I study. Overall, 304 plasma samples were obtained from seven ESRD patients in dabigatran steady-state for measurement by HEMOCLOT(®) (calibrated diluted thrombin time [dTT]) and by LC-MS/MS. Agreement of dabigatran concentrations was assessed by regression analysis and difference plots. The measurements of calibration standards of the HEMOCLOT(®) assay showed excellent precision with coefficients of variation <5%. Accuracy determined by analysis of two quality control samples was 90% and 111%. HEMOCLOT(®)-derived dabigatran plasma concentrations paralleled those obtained by LC-MS/MS. The mean ratio of the LC-MS/MS and dTT-derived concentrations was 0.955 (67% limits of agreement: 0.771-1.18). The HEMOCLOT(®) Thrombin Inhibitors assay is suitable for measuring dabigatran plasma concentrations in volunteers with ESRD undergoing haemodialysis. The agreement between dabigatran concentrations determined by the HEMOCLOT(®) assay and the LC-MS/MS reference method met bioanalytical acceptance criteria. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Thrombosis Research 01/2015; 135(3). DOI:10.1016/j.thromres.2014.12.021 · 2.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Measurement of the anticoagulant effect of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) may be desirable, in particular in patients with acute medical conditions. Useful methods should give results rapidly within minutes, should be easy to perform, specific, and sensitive. Using plasma samples, chromogenic assays can be made to be specific for the two types of NOAC (factor Xa and thrombin inhibitors), and also hemoclot and ecarin clotting time specific for dabigatran. If plasma samples anticoagulated with sodium citrate are not available, blood samples anticoagulated with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid or serum samples may be regarded as alternatives for the determination of NOAC. At present, dabigatran cannot be determined from serum samples because it may be consumed during the clotting process to obtain serum. NOAC can be determined in urine samples due to their renal elimination. Quantitative methods are preferable to qualitative methods, although the latter may be advantageous in some situations, being developed as point-of-care tests for oral factor Xa and thrombin inhibitors. In these tests, the presence and absence of NOAC in urine can be identified with the naked eye after a few minutes and these tests are highly specific and sensitive. New assays such as a semiquantitative determination in urine samples and measurement using other sample matrices are currently under development. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis 02/2015; DOI:10.1055/s-0035-1544158 · 3.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A new generation of antithrombotic agents has recently emerged. These provide direct inhibition of either thrombin (factor IIa [FIIa]) or FXa, and are increasingly replacing the classical anticoagulants (heparin and coumarins such as warfarin) in clinical practice for a variety of conditions. These agents have been designated several acronyms, including NOACs, DOACs, and TSOACs, respectively, referring to new (novel; non-vitamin K antagonist) oral anticoagulants, direct oral anticoagulants, and target-specific oral anticoagulants, and currently include dabigatran (FIIa inhibitor), and rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban, and betrixaban (FXa inhibitors). The pervading mantra that NOACs do not require laboratory monitoring is countered by ongoing recognition that laboratory testing for drug effects is needed in many situations. Moreover, since these agents "do not require" laboratory monitoring, some clinicians inappropriately take this to mean that they do not affect hemostasis tests. This review aims to briefly review the laboratory studies that have evaluated the NOACs against a wide range of laboratory assays to assess utility for qualitative or quantitative measurements of these drugs, as well as interferences that may cause misdiagnosis of hemostatic defects. Point of care testing, including use of alternate samples such as urine and serum, is also under development but is not covered extensively in this review. The main aims of this article are to provide practical guidance to general laboratory testing for NOACs, as well as to help avoid diagnostic errors associated with hemostasis testing performed on samples from treated patients, as these currently comprise major challenges to hemostasis laboratories in the era of the NOACs. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis 02/2015; DOI:10.1055/s-0035-1546827 · 3.69 Impact Factor