Assessing the development of balance function in children using stabilometry.
ABSTRACT This study assessed the development of balance function in children using platform stabilometry.
A total of 251 healthy children aged from 3 to 12 years were enrolled in this study. Each subject underwent stabilometry under four various conditions (A: firm surface with eyes open; B: firm surface with eyes closed; C: foam pad with eyes open; and D: foam pad with eyes closed). Another 23 healthy adults were also tested with the same protocol for comparison. Sway magnitudes such as sway velocity and circular area were calculated and compared.
Since the age was positively correlated with body height and body weight, age factor was used to correlate with the sway magnitude. The sway velocity under conditions A through D reached adult level when the child grew up to 7, 7, 8 and 12 years, respectively. In contrast, the circular area under conditions A through D reached adult level when the child was at the age of 5, 6, 8 and 7 years, respectively. Thus, balance function can be up to adult levels by age 12 years.
Compared to adults, higher sway velocity and larger circular area in children indicate incomplete development of vestibular and central nervous systems integration. Our results suggest that age factor serves the most reliable index to estimate the functional development of balance system, and a child at the age of 12 years is supposed to reach balance level of an adult.
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of motion sickness in schoolchildren and related the finding to the postural balance and quality of life. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out with 831 children aged 7 to 12 years. The frequency of motion sickness was evaluated based on the Motion Sickness Susceptibility Questionnaire-Short (MSSQ-short). Postural balance was assessed using the Romberg test under different sensory conditions. The Dizziness Handicap Inventory was used in order to assess the quality of life. The statistical analyses were performed using the chi-square, Kruskal–Wallis, Mann–Whitney, and Spearman correlation tests. The prevalence of motion sickness was 43.4 % in car, 43.2 % on bus, 11.7 % on park swing, and 11.6 % on Ferris wheel. Mean unadjusted scores on the MSSQ-short ranged from 5.0 (SE = 0.5) for 10-year-olds to 6.8 (SE = 0.5) for 9-year-olds. The most prevalent symptoms following the balance tests were dizziness (89.2 %), vertigo (54.9 %), headache (10.6 %), and nausea (8.2 %). Significant correlations were found between the MSSQ-short score and all postural balance tests. Significant correlations were found between the MSSQ and modified DHI (Dizziness Handicap Inventory) at all ages. Conclusion: The prevalence of motion sickness in schoolchildren is greater when in a car or on a bus. An association was found between motion sickness and postural balance tests and motion sickness and quality of life.European Journal of Pediatrics 06/2014; · 1.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this study, we compared direction detection thresholds of passive self-motion in the dark between artistic gymnasts and controls. Twenty-four professional female artistic gymnasts (ranging from 7 to 20 years) and age-matched controls were seated on a motion platform and asked to discriminate the direction of angular (yaw, pitch, roll) and linear (leftward-rightward) motion. Gymnasts showed lower thresholds for the linear leftward-rightward motion. Interestingly, there was no difference for the angular motions. These results show that the outstanding self-motion abilities in artistic gymnasts are not related to an overall higher sensitivity in self-motion perception. With respect to vestibular processing, our results suggest that gymnastic expertise is exclusively linked to superior interpretation of otolith signals when no change in canal signals is present. In addition, thresholds were overall lower for the older (14-20 years) than for the younger (7-13 years) participants, indicating the maturation of vestibular sensitivity from childhood to adolescence.Experimental Brain Research 01/2014; · 2.17 Impact Factor
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