Assessing the development of balance function in children using stabilometry
ABSTRACT This study assessed the development of balance function in children using platform stabilometry.
A total of 251 healthy children aged from 3 to 12 years were enrolled in this study. Each subject underwent stabilometry under four various conditions (A: firm surface with eyes open; B: firm surface with eyes closed; C: foam pad with eyes open; and D: foam pad with eyes closed). Another 23 healthy adults were also tested with the same protocol for comparison. Sway magnitudes such as sway velocity and circular area were calculated and compared.
Since the age was positively correlated with body height and body weight, age factor was used to correlate with the sway magnitude. The sway velocity under conditions A through D reached adult level when the child grew up to 7, 7, 8 and 12 years, respectively. In contrast, the circular area under conditions A through D reached adult level when the child was at the age of 5, 6, 8 and 7 years, respectively. Thus, balance function can be up to adult levels by age 12 years.
Compared to adults, higher sway velocity and larger circular area in children indicate incomplete development of vestibular and central nervous systems integration. Our results suggest that age factor serves the most reliable index to estimate the functional development of balance system, and a child at the age of 12 years is supposed to reach balance level of an adult.
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ABSTRACT: This study utilized a combined ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) and cervical VEMP (cVEMP) test in children with benign paroxysmal vertigo (BPV) to investigate whether the upper or lower brainstem is more frequently affected in BPV children. Fifteen BPV children aged 4-14 years, and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy children were enrolled. All subjects underwent pure tone audiometry, stabilometry, and a combined oVEMP and cVEMP test using acoustic stimulation. All BPV patients displayed normal hearing and clear oVEMPs. However, 11 (73%) of 15 BPV patients had delayed cVEMPs, showing significant difference when compared with 100% normal cVEMPs in healthy children. The sway path and sway area in stabilometry were significantly different between BPV and healthy children, regardless of whether their eyes were open or closed. However, neither the sway path nor sway area correlated significantly with cVEMP results. Normal oVEMPs in BPV children indicate an intact vestibulo-ocular reflex pathway, which travels through the upper brainstem. In contrast, delayed cVEMPs in BPV children reflect a retrolabyrinthine lesion along the sacculo-collic reflex pathway, which descends via the lower brainstem. Hence, the lower brainstem is more frequently affected than the upper brainstem in children with BPV.International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology 03/2010; 74(5):523-7. DOI:10.1016/j.ijporl.2010.02.013 · 1.32 Impact Factor
- Journal of Hepatology 03/2011; 54. DOI:10.1016/S0168-8278(11)61144-6 · 10.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dizziness is a rare complaint among children. In this article, the authors present the embryology and development of the vestibular system, and offer a rational approach to taking a careful history and ordering and interpreting appropriate vestibular and balance testing in children. A differential diagnosis is presented, so that the likely cause of the balance disorder can be elucidated even in the most complex pediatric patients.Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America 04/2011; 44(2):251-71, vii. DOI:10.1016/j.otc.2011.01.001 · 1.34 Impact Factor