Vav1 and PI3K are required for phagocytosis of beta-glucan and subsequent superoxide generation by microglia.
ABSTRACT Microglia are the resident innate immune cells that are critical for innate and adaptive immune responses within the CNS. They recognize and are activated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) present on the surface of pathogens. beta-glucans, the major PAMP present within fungal cell walls, are recognized by Dectin-1, which mediates numerous intracellular events invoked by beta-glucans in various immune cells. Previously, we showed that Dectin-1 mediates phagocytosis of beta-glucan and subsequent superoxide production in microglia. Here, we report that the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav1 as well as phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) are downstream mediators of what is now recognized as the Dectin-1 signaling pathway. Both Vav1 and PI3K are activated upon stimulation of microglia with beta-glucans, and the two proteins are required for phagocytosis of the glucan particles and for subsequent superoxide production. We also show that Vav1 functions upstream of PI3K and is required for activation of PI3K. Together, our results provide an important insight into the mechanistic aspects of microglial activation in response to beta-glucans.
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ABSTRACT: Nutritional modulation of the immune system is an often exploited but poorly characterized process. In chickens and other food production animals, dietary enhancement of the immune response is an attractive alternative to antimicrobial use. A yeast cell wall component, beta-1,3/1,6-glucan, augments the response to disease in poultry and other species; however, the mechanism of action is not clear. Ascorbic acid and corticosterone are better characterized immunomodulators. In chickens, the spleen acts both as reservoir and activation site for leukocytes and, therefore, splenic gene expression reflects systemic immune function. To determine effects of genetic line and dietary immunomodulators, chickens of outbred broiler and inbred Leghorn and Fayoumi lines were fed either a basal diet or an experimental diet containing beta-glucans, ascorbic acid, or corticosterone from 56 to 77 d of age. Spleens were harvested, mRNA was isolated, and expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-18, macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta, interferon-gamma, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase p110gamma transcripts was measured by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Effects of diet, genetic line, sex, and diet x genetic line interaction on weight gain and gene expression were analyzed. At 1, 2, and 3 wk after starting the diet treatments, birds fed the corticosterone diet had gained less weight compared with birds fed the other diets (P < 0.001). Sex affected expression of IL-18 (P = 0.010), with higher levels in males. There was a significant interaction between genetic line and diet on expression of IL-4, IL-6, and IL-18 (P = 0.021, 0.006, and 0.026, respectively). Broiler line gene expression did not change in response to the experimental diet. Splenic expression of IL-6 was higher in Leghorns fed the basal or ascorbic acid diets, rather than the beta-glucan or corticosterone diets, whereas the opposite relationship was observed in the Fayoumi line. Expression of IL-4 and IL-18 responded to diet only within the Fayoumi line. The differential splenic expression of birds from diverse genetic lines in response to nutritional immunomodulation emphasizes the need for further study of this process.Poultry Science 08/2010; 89(8):1635-41. DOI:10.3382/ps.2010-00846 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The performance of multicarrier and single carrier modulation schemes is compared for wideband mobile radio communication systems. In both cases the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and its inverse are utilized. The transmission systems are simulated with time-variant transfer functions measured with a wideband channel sounder. In case of OFDM, the individual subcarriers are modulated with fixed and adaptive signal alphabets. In particular, the systems are compared with respect to the degradation due to pilot-aided channel estimation and carrier frequency synchronizationGlobal Telecommunications Conference, 1997. GLOBECOM '97., IEEE; 12/1997