Milk - The promoter of chronic Western diseases

Department of Dermatology, Environmental Medicine and Health Theory, University of Osnabrück, Sedanstrasse 115, D-49090 Osnabrück, Germany.
Medical Hypotheses (Impact Factor: 1.07). 03/2009; 72(6):631-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2009.01.008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Common chronic diseases of Western societies, such as coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer, hypertension, obesity, dementia, and allergic diseases are significantly influenced by dietary habits. Cow's milk and dairy products are nutritional staples in most Western societies. Milk and dairy product consumption is recommended by most nutritional societies because of their beneficial effects for calcium uptake and bone mineralization and as a source of valuable protein. However, the adverse long-term effects of milk and milk protein consumption on human health have been neglected. A hypothesis is presented, showing for the first time that milk protein consumption is an essential adverse environmental factor promoting most chronic diseases of Western societies. Milk protein consumption induces postprandial hyperinsulinaemia and shifts the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis to permanently increased IGF-1 serum levels. Insulin/IGF-1 signalling is involved in the regulation of fetal growth, T-cell maturation in the thymus, linear growth, pathogenesis of acne, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, obesity, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, thus affecting most chronic diseases of Western societies. Of special concern is the possibility that milk intake during pregnancy adversely affects the early fetal programming of the IGF-1 axis which will influence health risks later in life. An accumulated body of evidence for the adverse effects of cow's milk consumption from fetal life to childhood, adolescence, adulthood and senescence will be provided which strengthens the presented hypothesis.

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    • "Adipogenic and insulin resistance inducing effects of whole milk consumption are compatible with recent observations in human subjects, who have been supplemented with milk protein fractions [4] [5]. Western diet, characterized by persistent milk and dairy protein consumption, may thus promote mTORC1-driven diseases of civilization [6]. "
    Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 06/2014; 58(6):1166-7. DOI:10.1002/mnfr.201470054 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    • "Alternatively, it has been suggested that long-term high fat dairy consumption may underlie the pathogenesis of type II diabetes by promoting β-cell apoptosis [14] and increase CVD risk by contributing to hyperlipidemia. These negative health responses may be linked with increased intake of insulin-like growth factors (1 & 2) [3] and saturated fat of dairy foods [15-17]. Inconsistent data from different studies on the health benefits of dairy may be attributed to differences in experimental design (study population, health status, ethnicity, and gender) [18] and differential health effects of specific dairy products [19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Given the highly debated role of dairy food consumption in modulating biomarkers of metabolic syndrome, this study was conducted to examine the influence of long-term (6 month) dairy consumption on metabolic parameters in healthy volunteers under free-living conditions without energy restriction. Twenty-three healthy subjects completed a randomized, crossover trial of 12 months. Participants consumed their habitual diets and were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: a high dairy supplemented group instructed to consume 4 servings of dairy per day (HD); or a low dairy supplemented group limited to no more than 2 servings of dairy per day (LD). Baseline, midpoint, and endpoint metabolic responses were examined. Endpoint measurements of body weight and composition, energy expenditure, blood pressure, blood glucose, and blood lipid and lipoprotein responses did not differ (p > 0.05) between the LD and HD groups. HD consumption improved (p < 0.05) plasma insulin (-9%) and insulin resistance (-11%, p = 0.03) as estimated by HOMA-IR compared with the LD group. Study results suggest that high dairy consumption (4 servings/d) may improve insulin resistance without negatively impacting bodyweight or lipid status under free-living conditions. Trial registration Trial registration: NCT01761955
    Nutrition Journal 05/2013; 12(1):56. DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-12-56 · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    • "Because milk and dairy products contribute substantially to the saturated fat intake in Western populations, the general recommendation is to use fat reduced milk and dairy products (5). It has been hypothesized that milk is the promoter of chronic Western diseases (6), but recent systematic reviews found no consistent evidence that milk or dairy food consumption was associated with a higher risk of coronary heart disease or metabolic syndrome (7–9). A recent study from Finland found that a high consumption of milk products during pregnancy was associated with lower risk of cow's milk allergy in the children (10). "
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    ABSTRACT: It is increasingly acknowledged that the maternal diet influences fetal development and health of the child. Milk and milk products contribute essential nutrients and bioactive substances; they are of ample supply and have a long tradition in Nordic countries. To revise and update dietary guidelines for pregnant women valid in Nordic countries, the Pregnancy and Lactation expert group within the NNR5 project identified a need to systematically review recent scientific data on infant growth measures and maternal milk consumption. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of milk and dairy consumption during pregnancy on fetal growth through a systematic review of studies published between January 2000 and December 2011. A literature search was run in June 2011. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion from the 495 abstracts according to predefined eligibility criteria. A complementary search in January 2012 revealed 64 additional abstracts published during the period June to December 2011, among them one study of interest previously identified. Of the 33 studies extracted, eight were relevant research papers. Five were prospective cohort studies (including a retrospective chart review), one was a case-control study, and two were retrospective cohort studies. For fetal length or infant birth length, three studies reported no association and two reported positive associations with milk or dairy consumption. For birthweight related outcomes, two studies reported no associations, and four studies reported positive associations with milk and/or dairy consumption. There was large heterogeneity in exposure range and effect size between studies. A beneficial fetal growth-increase was most pronounced for increasing maternal milk intake in the lower end of the consumption range. Evidence from prospective cohort studies is limited but suggestive that moderate milk consumption relative to none or very low intake, is positively associated with fetal growth and infant birthweight in healthy, Western populations.
    Food & Nutrition Research 11/2012; 56. DOI:10.3402/fnr.v56i0.20050 · 1.79 Impact Factor
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