A sensitive LC/MS/MS assay of 25OH vitamin D3 and 25OH vitamin D2 in dried blood spots.
ABSTRACT Low levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) during early development is associated with a range of adverse health outcomes. While a number of methods exist to measure 25OHD in sera, none have been specifically developed to examine dried blood spots (DBS).
We describe an assay where 25 hydroxyvitamin D(3) (25OHD3) and 25 hydroxyvitamin D(2) (25OHD2) are extracted from 3.2 mm DBS punches, derivatised with 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD) prior to analysis with LC/MS/MS. We assessed assay precision, relative accuracy and examined the impact of storage conditions in samples stored for up to 22 years.
The new assay had good accuracy and precision, and was highly sensitive, being capable of detecting <1 nmol/l 25OHD3 and 2 nmol/l 25OHD2. CDER sensitivity criteria were slightly higher at 7.7 nmol/l for 25OHD3 and 10.7 nmol/l for 25OHD2. The mean 25OHD3 concentration in 118 archived DBS was 20.8+/-11.4, (4.8 to 67.8 nmol/l). 25OHD2 was detected in only two of these samples. 25OHD3 concentrations were significantly higher in DBS collected in summer compared to winter (p<0.0001).
Both 25OHD3 and 25OHD2 can be reliably quantified in archived 3.2 mm dried blood spots. We can not be certain that the levels we measure in archived samples are exactly the same as when they were collected. However, the fact that the DBS levels reflect the well-known seasonal variation in this vitamin and when corrected for sera, values fall within the normal range for 25OHD3, means that DBS are a useful tissue repository for testing a range of hypotheses linking developmental hypovitaminosis D and adverse health outcomes.
- SourceAvailable from: Gordon MckayPharmaceutical Research 01/2001; 17(12):1551-7. · 4.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency has re-emerged as a significant paediatric health issue, with complications including hypocalcaemic seizures, rickets, limb pain and fracture. A major risk factor for infants is maternal vitamin D deficiency. For older infants and children, risk factors include dark skin colour, cultural practices, prolonged breastfeeding, restricted sun exposure and certain medical conditions. To prevent vitamin D deficiency in infants, pregnant women, especially those who are dark-skinned or veiled, should be screened and treated for vitamin D deficiency, and breastfed infants of dark-skinned or veiled women should be supplemented with vitamin D for the first 12 months of life. Regular sunlight exposure can prevent vitamin D deficiency, but the safe exposure time for children is unknown. To prevent vitamin D deficiency, at-risk children should receive 400 IU vitamin D daily; if compliance is poor, an annual dose of 150,000 IU may be considered. Treatment of vitamin D deficiency involves giving ergocalciferol or cholecalciferol for 3 months (1000 IU/day if < 1 month of age; 3000 IU/day if 1-12 months of age; 5000 IU/day if > 12 months of age). High-dose bolus therapy (300,000-500,000 IU) should be considered for children over 12 months of age if compliance or absorption issues are suspected.The Medical journal of Australia 09/2006; 185(5):268-72. · 2.85 Impact Factor
Article: Vitamin D3 and brain development.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Evidence for the presence of the vitamin D receptor in brain implies this vitamin may have some function in this organ. This study investigates whether vitamin D(3) acts during brain development. We demonstrate that rats born to vitamin D(3)-deficient mothers had profound alterations in the brain at birth. The cortex was longer but not wider, the lateral ventricles were enlarged, the cortex was proportionally thinner and there was more cell proliferation throughout the brain. There were reductions in brain content of nerve growth factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and reduced expression of p75(NTR), the low-affinity neurotrophin receptor. Our findings would suggest that low maternal vitamin D(3) has important ramifications for the developing brain.Neuroscience 02/2003; 118(3):641-53. · 3.12 Impact Factor