Association between major depressive disorder and C-reactive protein levels in stable coronary heart disease patients
ABSTRACT This study aimed for a comprehensive evaluation of major depressive disorder (MDD) in stable coronary heart disease (CHD) patients, excluding all other potential psychiatric comorbidities, and including associations with cardiac biomarkers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), troponin T (TnT), and amino-terminal pro-B-type brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP).
Cross-sectional study of a consecutive series of 72 stable CHD outpatients (n=30 with MDD, n=42 with no psychiatric disorder). Psychiatric diagnoses were established by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID), and psychiatric assessment was performed on Axis I, Axis III, Axis IV, and Axis V. Regression analyses were performed including CRP, TnT, and NT-proBNP as dependent variables, and MDD, demographics, and comorbid medical conditions as independent variables.
Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed a significant association between MDD and CRP (beta=0.262, P=.02), excluding all other demographic and medical variables from the models, except age (beta=0.266, P=.02). In addition, the results described a significant relationship between type II diabetes mellitus and TnT (beta=0.267, P=.02), and age and NT-proBNP levels (beta=0.374, P=.001).
Major depressive disorder was associated with elevated CRP levels in a consecutive series of stable CHD patients.
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- "In the case of anxiety, less research is conducted on the associations with inflammation. However, there is some evidence suggesting that anxiety is associated with inflammation (Bankier et al., 2008; Hoge et al., 2009; von Kanel et al., 2010) reporting small to large effect sizes. However, these studies included relatively small samples (N < 120), which could mask true effect sizes. "
ABSTRACT: Objective: Depression and anxiety have been suggested to be associated with systemic inflammation upregulation. However, results are not always consistent, which may be due to symptom heterogeneity of depression and anxiety. There are some indications that associations with inflammation are mainly driven by somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety. We therefore set out to evaluate the differential association of somatic and cognitive symptoms of depression and anxiety with inflammation, while adjusting for demographic, health related, and lifestyle related variables. Methods: We evaluated baseline data from 2861 participants from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology and the Beck Anxiety Inventory were used to assess depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms. For both scales somatic and cognitive symptoms scales were calculated. Baseline blood samples were collected to determine high sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α. We used linear regression to analyze the associations adjusting for demographics and health indicators and markers for an unhealthy lifestyle. Results: After adjustment for sociodemographic and health indicators, depressive symptoms were associated with higher levels of CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α. This association was mainly driven by somatic symptoms. For anxiety, somatic symptoms were associated with higher levels of CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α, whereas cognitive anxiety symptoms were associated with CRP (men only). Markers of an unhealthy lifestyle explained the significant associations. Conclusions: Especially somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety are associated with inflammation. However, this association was mostly mediated through unhealthy lifestyles among depressed and anxious individuals.Psychoneuroendocrinology 02/2013; 38(9). DOI:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2013.01.002 · 4.94 Impact Factor
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- "Cross-sectional surveys and case-control studies have also found elevated blood markers of inflammation, including CRP and IL-6, in patients with MDD relative to healthy controls, and that these markers were positively correlated with depression symptom severity [140–145]. Lastly, greater CRP levels have been observed in CHD outpatients with MDD compared with CHD outpatients without MDD . However, it is notable that the Heart and Soul Study of 984 participants found that current MDD was associated with lower levels of inflammatory marker including CRP and IL-6 in both unadjusted and adjusted models . "
ABSTRACT: Major depression disorder (MDD) significantly increases the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) which is a leading cause of mortality in patients with MDD. Moreover, depression is frequently observed in a subset of patients following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and increases risk for mortality. Here evidence implicating omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid deficiency in the pathoaetiology of CHD and MDD is reviewed, and the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acid deficiency is a preventable risk factor for CHD comorbidity in MDD patients is evaluated. This hypothesis is supported by cross-national and cross-sectional epidemiological surveys finding an inverse correlation between n-3 fatty acid status and prevalence rates of both CHD and MDD, prospective studies finding that lower dietary or membrane EPA+DHA levels increase risk for both MDD and CHD, case-control studies finding that the n-3 fatty acid status of MDD patients places them at high risk for emergent CHD morbidity and mortality, meta-analyses of controlled n-3 fatty acid intervention studies finding significant advantage over placebo for reducing depression symptom severity in MDD patients, and for secondary prevention of cardiac events in CHD patients, findings that n-3 fatty acid status is inversely correlated with other documented CHD risk factors, and patients diagnosed with MDD after ACS exhibit significantly lower n-3 fatty acid status compared with nondepressed ACS patients. This body of evidence provides strong support for future studies to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary n-3 fatty acid status on CHD comorbidity and mortality in MDD patients.Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology 09/2009; 2009(2090-0163):362795. DOI:10.1155/2009/362795
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ABSTRACT: A high-order implicit discontinuous Galerkin method is developed for the time-accurate solutions to the compressible Navier–Stokes equations. The spatial discretization is carried out using a high order discontinuous Galerkin method, where polynomial solutions are represented using a Taylor basis. A second order implicit method is applied for temporal discretization to the resulting ordinary differential equations. The resulting non-linear system of equations is solved at each time step using a pseudo-time marching approach. A newly developed fast, p-multigrid is then used to obtain the steady state solution to the pseudo-time system. The developed method is applied to compute a variety of unsteady subsonic viscous flow problems. The numerical results obtained indicate that the use of this implicit method leads to significant improvements in performance over its explicit counterpart, while without significant increase in memory requirements.Highlights► An implicit discontinuous Galerkin method is developed for the compressible Navier–Stokes equations. ► The resulting non-linear equations are solved using a pseudo-time marching approach. ► A p-multigrid method is used to obtain the steady state solution to the pseudo-time system. ► This implicit method provides significant improvement in performance over its explicit counterpart.Computers & Fluids 01/2011; 53(1):133-144. DOI:10.1016/j.compfluid.2011.10.009 · 1.62 Impact Factor