Assessment of personality dimensions in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder using the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory.
ABSTRACT We compared temperament and character traits in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder (BP) and healthy control (HC) subjects.
Sixty nine subjects (38 BP and 31 HC), 8-17 years old, were assessed with the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime. Temperament and character traits were measured with parent and child versions of the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory.
BP subjects scored higher on novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and fantasy subscales, and lower on reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness compared to HC (all p < 0.007), by child and parent reports. These findings were consistent in both children and adolescents. Higher parent-rated novelty seeking, lower self-directedness, and lower cooperativeness were associated with co-morbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Lower parent-rated reward dependence was associated with co-morbid conduct disorder, and higher child-rated persistence was associated with co-morbid anxiety.
These findings support previous reports of differences in temperament in BP children and adolescents and may assist in a greater understating of BP children and adolescents beyond mood symptomatology.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present research was to identify profiles of Cloninger's temperament and character dimensions associated with anxiety disorders, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and attention- deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) in preschoolers. The parents of 120 children (mean age=4.65years; S.D.=.88) completed the Preschool Temperament and Character Inventory (PsTCI). The sample consisted of 4 groups (n=30 per group): ADHD, anxious, ODD and control children. To diagnose the different disorders, the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment and Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5 was administered to the parents. The discriminant analysis showed that three temperamental dimensions (Harm Avoidance, Novelty Seeking and Persistence) enabled the correct classification of 75% of cases within their own group, which demonstrated an adequate accuracy rate. The ADHD children showed a temperamental profile that was characterized by high Novelty Seeking, low Reward Dependence and low Persistence, while the anxious children obtained high scores in Harm Avoidance. The profiles of the ODD children shared some common features (high Novelty Seeking) with the ADHD children, but the ODD children were characterized by higher Persistence and Harm Avoidance compared with ADHD children. The present results indicate that Cloninger's temperamental dimensions allow to differentiate the three most frequent psychiatric disorders in preschoolers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Comprehensive Psychiatry 01/2015; 58. DOI:10.1016/j.comppsych.2015.01.001 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective Advances in dimensional assessment of children in healthy and clinical populations has renewed interest in the study of temperament. Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) has shown high reliability and internal consistency. Adult and adolescent versions have been translated into a number of languages and validated in cross-cultural studies worldwide. To date only one preschool-TCI-based study has been conducted in early infancy with teachers as observers. The present study is aimed to test an Italian Preschool version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (PsTCI). This is the first replication and the first validation study of TCI on preschoolers with parents as observers. Methods 395 preschool children, recruited from pediatric communities and day-care centres throughout Italy, participated in the study. Parents of each child enrolled in the study and completed a PsTCI about the child. Standard psychometric tests of reliability and validation were performed. Results Exploratory factor analyses demonstrated the presence of distinct domains for temperament and character. TCI dimensions had good internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha ranging values (|0.60|-|0.81|). Gender differences were found for Harm Avoidance (β=-0.186; p≤0.001) and Self-Directedness (β=-0.216; p≤0.01), and accounted for 5-35arm-38-702- of the observed variance. Conclusion The present work suggests the psychological complexity of Cloninger's model and confirms its application in pre-school children from diverse environmental and cultural backgrounds. The results confirm that Cloninger's instrument for temperament and character evaluations can also be used with different observers and highlight the importance of considering cultural and demographic differences in the assessment of temperament and character in preschoolers.Psychiatry investigation 10/2014; 11(4):419-29. DOI:10.4306/pi.2014.11.4.419 · 1.15 Impact Factor
01/2010; 8(2):165-179. DOI:10.1176/foc.8.2.foc165