Potent non-benzoquinone ansamycin heat shock protein 90 inhibitors from genetic engineering of Streptomyces hygroscopicus.
ABSTRACT Inhibition of the protein chaperone Hsp90 is a promising new approach to cancer therapy. We describe the preparation of potent non-benzoquinone ansamycins. One of these analogues, generated by feeding 3-amino-5-chlorobenzoic acid to a genetically engineered strain of Streptomyces hygroscopicus, shows high accumulation and long residence time in tumor tissue, is well-tolerated upon intravenous dosing, and is highly efficacious in the COLO205 mouse tumor xenograft model.
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ABSTRACT: Natural product analogue generation is important, providing tools for chemical biology, enabling structure activity relationship determination and insight into the way in which natural products interact with their target biomolecules. The generation of analogues is also often necessary in order to improve bioavailability and to fine tune compounds' activity. This review provides an overview of the catalogue of approaches available for accessing series of analogues. Over the last few years there have been major advances in genome sequencing and the development of tools for biosynthetic pathway engineering; it is therefore becoming increasingly easy to combine molecular biology and synthetic organic chemistry in order to enable expeditious access to series of natural products. This review outlines the various ways of combining biology and chemistry that have been applied to analogue generation, drawing upon a series of examples to illustrate each approach.Natural Product Reports 06/2012; 29(8):870-89. · 10.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The amide synthase of the geldanamycin producer, Streptomyces hygroscopicus, shows a broader chemoselectivity than the corresponding amide synthase present in Actinosynnema pretiosum, the producer of the highly cytotoxic ansamycin antibiotics, the ansamitocins. This was demonstrated when blocked mutants of both strains incapable of biosynthesizing 3-amino-5-hydroxybenzoic acid (AHBA), the polyketide synthase starter unit of both natural products, were supplemented with 3-amino-5-hydroxymethylbenzoic acid instead. Unlike the ansamitocin producer A. pretiosum, S. hygroscopicus processed this modified starter unit not only to the expected 19-membered macrolactams but also to ring enlarged 20-membered macrolactones. The former mutaproducts revealed the sequence of transformations catalyzed by the post-PKS tailoring enzymes in geldanamycin biosynthesis. The unprecedented formation of the macrolactones together with molecular modeling studies shed light on the mode of action of the amide synthase responsible for macrocyclization. Obviously, the 3-hydroxymethyl substituent shows similar reactivity and accessibility toward C-1 of the seco-acid as the arylamino group, while phenolic hydroxyl groups lack this propensity to act as nucleophiles in the macrocyclization. The promiscuity of the amide synthase of S. hygroscopicus was further demonstrated by successful feeding of four other m-hydroxymethylbenzoic acids, leading to formation of the expected 20-membered macrocycles. Good to moderate antiproliferative activities were encountered for three of the five new geldanamycin derivatives, which matched well with a competition assay for Hsp90α.Journal of the American Chemical Society 12/2011; 134(3):1673-9. · 10.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone protein essential for cellular survival. Functionally, HSPs promote proper protein folding, prevent misfolding, and restore three-dimensional protein structure which is critical following toxic cellular stresses. Recently, targeting HSP90 pharmacologically has gained traction in cancer therapy. Oncogenic cells depend on their ability to withstand endogenous (anoxia, nutrient deprivation, pH changes, and deranged signaling pathways) and exogenous (chemotherapy and radiation therapy) stressors for survival. Pharmacological inhibition of HSP90 destabilizes proteins and leads to degradation through the proteasome. This article will review the utility of HSP90 inhibition, as well as the current adoption in clinical trials and practice.rapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology, The 07/2012; 4(4):211-8.