Association between diabetes and different components of coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden as measured by coronary multidetector computed tomography

Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, United States.
Atherosclerosis (Impact Factor: 3.99). 02/2009; 205(2):481-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2009.01.015
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to assess differences in the presence, extent, and composition of coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden as detected by coronary multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) between patients with and without diabetes mellitus.
We compared coronary atherosclerotic plaques (any plaque, calcified [CAP], non-calcified [NCAP, and mixed plaque [MCAP]]) between 144 symptomatic diabetic and non-diabetic patients (36 diabetics, mean age: 54.4+/-12, 64% females) who underwent coronary 64-slice MDCT (Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim, Germany) for the evaluation of acute chest pain but proven absence of myocardial ischemia.
Patients with diabetes had a higher prevalence of any plaque, CAP, MCAP, and NCAP (p=0.08, 0.07, 0.05, and 0.05, respectively) and a significantly higher extent of any plaque, CAP, MCAP, and NCAP (3.8+/-4.2 vs. 2.0+/-3.2, p=0.01; 3.3+/-4.0 vs. 1.7+/-3.0, p=0.03; 1.4+/-2.6 vs. 0.6+/-1.5, p=0.03; and 1.9+/-3.0 vs. 1.0+/-1.9, p=0.03, respectively) as compared to controls. In addition, patients with diabetes had a significant higher prevalence of significant coronary artery stenosis (42% vs. 14%, p=0.0004) and an approximately 3.5-fold higher risk of significant coronary stenosis independent of the presence of hypertension and BMI (OR: 3.46, 95% CI: 1.37-8.74, p=0.009).
Patients with diabetes have an approximately 3.5-fold higher risk of coronary stenosis independent of other cardiovascular risk factors and an overall increased coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden.

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    • "The calcium burden affects not only MDCT feasibility but also the quantification of the coronary stenosis, sometimes leading to an overestimation of the lesion severity [20]. Second, compared to non-diabetic individuals, DM patients have a more extensive plaque burden, as shown in several previous studies [6,21] and confirmed by our results, which has a strong influence on MDCT diagnostic accuracy [22]. Third, the small coronary size and lumen area, typical of DM patients [10,23] and confirmed in our study, cause difficulties detecting focal lesions and differentiating between significant and non-significant stenoses, since the small coronary lumen dimension is proximal to the imaging technique resolution. "
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetics have high prevalence of subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) with typical characteristics (diffuse disease, large calcifications). Although 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) coronary angiography has high diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD, its diagnostic performance in diabetics with suspected CAD is unknown. To compare the diagnostic performance of 64-slice MDCT between diabetics and non-diabetics with suspected CAD scheduled for invasive coronary angiography (ICA). We enrolled one hundred and five diabetic patients (92 men, age 65 +/- 9 years, Group 1) and 105 non-diabetic patients (63 men, age 63+/-5 years, Group 2) with indication to ICA for suspected CAD undergoing coronary 64-slice MDCT before ICA. In Group 1, the overall feasibility of coronary artery visualization was 93.8%. The most frequent artifact was blooming due to large coronary calcifications (54 artifacts, 67%). In Group 2, the overall feasibility was significantly higher vs. Group 1 (97%, p < 0.0001). In Group 1, the segment-based analysis showed a MDCT sensibility, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy for the detection of ≥50% luminal narrowing of 77%, 90%, 70%, 93% and 87%, respectively. In Group 2, all these parameters were significantly higher vs. Group 1. In the patient-based analysis, specificity, negative predictive value and accuracy were significantly lower in Group 1 vs. Group 2. Although MDCT has high sensitivity for early identification of significant CAD in diabetics, its diagnostic performance is significantly reduced in these patients as compared to non-diabetics with similar clinical characteristics.
    Cardiovascular Diabetology 11/2010; 9(1):80. DOI:10.1186/1475-2840-9-80 · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    • "Regarding plaque composition, the most frequently detected type in this series was the calcified type followed by the mixed type. This was similar to results of previous studies [13,22,23]. However, one study has shown that non-calcified plaques were the main type of plaques in asymptomatic diabetic patients [24]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a common and severe complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The aim of this study is to identify the features of CAD in diabetic patients using coronary CT angiography (CTA). From 1 July 2009 to 20 March 2010, 113 consecutive patients (70 men, 43 women; mean age, 68 ± 10 years) with type 2 DM were found to have coronary plaques on coronary CTA. Their CTA data were reviewed, and extent, distribution and types of plaques and luminal narrowing were evaluated and compared between different sexes. In total, 287 coronary vessels (2.5 ± 1.1 per patient) and 470 segments (4.2 ± 2.8 per patient) were found to have plaques, respectively. Multi-vessel disease was more common than single vessel disease (p < 0.001), and the left anterior descending (LAD) artery (35.8%) and its proximal segment (19.1%) were most frequently involved (all p < 0.001). Calcified plaques (48.8%) were the most common type (p < 0.001) followed by mixed plaques (38.1%). Regarding the different degrees of stenosis, mild narrowing (36.9%) was most common (p < 0.001); however, a significant difference was not observed between non-obstructive and obstructive stenosis (50.4% vs. 49.6%, p = 0.855). Extent of CAD, types of plaques and luminal narrowing were not significantly different between male and female diabetic patients. Coronary CTA depicted a high plaque burden in patients with type 2 DM. Plaques, which were mainly calcified, were more frequently detected in the proximal segment of the LAD artery, and increased attention should be paid to the significant prevalence of obstructive stenosis. In addition, DM reduced the sex differential in CT findings of CAD.
    Cardiovascular Diabetology 11/2010; 9(1):74. DOI:10.1186/1475-2840-9-74 · 4.02 Impact Factor
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