Trafficking and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. J Cell Biochem

The DeWitt Daughtry Family Department of Surgery, Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, University of MiamiJackson Memorial Medical Center, Miami, FL 33136, USA.
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry (Impact Factor: 3.26). 04/2009; 106(6):984-91. DOI: 10.1002/jcb.22091
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a heterogeneous population of stem/progenitor cells with pluripotent capacity to differentiate into mesodermal and non-mesodermal cell lineages, including osteocytes, adipocytes, chondrocytes, myocytes, cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, epithelial cells, and neurons. MSCs reside primarily in the bone marrow, but also exist in other sites such as adipose tissue, peripheral blood, cord blood, liver, and fetal tissues. When stimulated by specific signals, these cells can be released from their niche in the bone marrow into circulation and recruited to the target tissues where they undergo in situ differentiation and contribute to tissue regeneration and homeostasis. Several characteristics of MSCs, such as the potential to differentiate into multiple lineages and the ability to be expanded ex vivo while retaining their original lineage differentiation commitment, make these cells very interesting targets for potential therapeutic use in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. The feasibility for transplantation of primary or engineered MSCs as cell-based therapy has been demonstrated. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the signals that control trafficking and differentiation of MSCs.

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    • "Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were first described by Friedenstein and colleagues in 1987 [1]. MSCs are characterized by their multilineage differentiation, self-renewal, antiinflammatory , immunosuppressive functions, and migration potential [2] [3] [4]. For potential treatments, MSCs can differentiate into osteocytes, chondrocytes, cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, lung epithelial cells, hepatocytes, and neurons and promote the repair of damaged tissues [5] [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive source for the clinical cell therapy of liver injury. Although the use of adult serum, platelet lysate, or cord blood serum solves some of the problems caused by fetal bovine serum (FBS), the allogeneic immune response, contamination, and donor-to-donor and donor-to-receptor differences still obstruct the application of MSCs. In this study, the influences of autoserum from liver-injured rats (LIRs) and allogeneic serum from healthy rats on the isolation and culture of bone marrow MSCs (BMSCs) were examined and compared to FBS. The results showed that BMSCs cultured with autoserum or allogeneic serum exhibited better MSC-specific morphology, lower rate of cell senescent, and higher proliferation kinetics than those with FBS. In addition, autoserum promoted the osteogenic differentiation potential of BMSCs as allogeneic serum did. Although there were no significant differences in proliferation activity, immunophenotypic characterization, and differentiation potential between BMSCs cultured with autoserum and those with allogeneic serum, the potential adverse immunological reactions in patients with allogeneic material transplantation must be considered. We therefore believe that the autoserum from liver-injured patients may be a better choice for MSC expansion to meet the needs of liver injury therapy.
    Stem cell International 06/2015; 2015:1-10. DOI:10.1155/2015/459580 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    • "Osteoporosis is characterized by decreased bone mass and is often accompanied by an increase in adipose tissue in the bone marrow, indicating gradual replacement of bone marrow by adipose tissue [4]. In vitro experiments have shown that both adipocytes and osteoblasts originate from common progenitor cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are capable of multiple pathways of differentiation, including differentiation into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myoblasts, adipocytes, and fibroblasts [5] [6]. However, regulation of the initial phase of differentiation is complex and subject to the influence of multiple factors, such as growth factors, cytokines, and hormones. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the effects of mechanical strain on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of cultured MSCs by stimulating MSCs cultured in general and adipogenic differentiation media using a mechanical strain device. Markers of osteogenic (Runx2, Osx, and I-collagen) and adipogenic (PPARγ-2, C/EBPα, and lipid droplets) differentiation were examined using real-time PCR, western blot, immunocytochemical, or histochemical stain analyses. Levels of Runx2 and Osx gradually increased in MSC groups in general medium subject to strain stimulation, as compared with in unstrained groups. After adding the stress signal, I-collagen protein levels of expression were obviously promoted in cells in comparison to the controls. The levels of PPARγ-2 and C/EBPα were decreased, and the emergence of lipid droplets was delayed in MSCs groups in adipogenic differentiation medium subject to strain stimulation, as compared with in unstrained groups. Mechanical strain can promote differentiation of MSCs into osteoblasts and can impede differentiation into adipocytes. These results clarify the mechanisms underlying the effects of exercise on bone repair and reconstruction and provide a more adequate scientific basis for the use of exercise therapy in the treatment of obesity and metabolic osteoporosis.
    04/2015; 2015:1-10. DOI:10.1155/2015/873251
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    • "Adult human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) are the multipotential cells capable of differentiating into osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and myoblasts and other cell types [19] [20] [21]. The process of bone regeneration requires the recruitment and migration of osteoblasts progenitors via the blood and epithelium of blood vessels to specific locations within the organism or to the MSC niche in bone marrow [22]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In this work, we investigated the bioactivity of anodic oxide coatings on Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in solutions containing Ca and P. The bioactive properties of the films were determined by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF), and their biocompatibility was examined using adult human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). The oxide layers were characterised based on their surface morphology (SEM, AFM, profilometry) as well as on their chemical and phase compositions (EDX, XRF, XRD, XPS). We report that anodic oxidation of Ti-13Nb-13Zr led to the development of relatively thick anodic oxide films that were enriched in Ca and P in the form of phosphate compounds. Furthermore, the treatment generated rough surfaces with a significant amount of open pores. The surfaces were essentially amorphous, with small amounts of crystalline phases (anatase and rutile) being observed, depending on the PEO process parameters. SBF soaking led to the precipitation of small crystals after one week of experiment. During culturing of hBMSCs on the bioactive Ti-13Nb-13Zr surfaces the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells toward osteoblasts was promoted, which indicated a potential of the modified materials to improve implant osseointegration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Materials Science and Engineering C 04/2015; 49. DOI:10.1016/j.msec.2014.12.073 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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