Impact of cry1AC-carrying Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis on leaf bacterial community.
ABSTRACT The effects of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) carrying cry1AC derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) on leaf bacterial community were examined by analyzing the horizontal transfer of trans-gene fragments from plants to bacteria. The effect of plant pathogenic bacteria on the gene transfer was also examined using Pseudomonas syringae pathovar. maculicola. The frequency of hygromycin-resistant bacteria did not alter in Bt leaves, though slight increase was observed in Pseudomonas-infected Bt leaves with no statistical significance. The analysis of bacterial community profiles using the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting indicated that there were slight differences between Bt and control Chinese cabbage, and also that infected tissues were dominated by P. syringae pv. maculicola. However, the cultured bacterial pools were not found to contain any transgene fragments. Thus, no direct evidence of immediate gene transfer from plant to bacteria or acquisition of hygromycin resistance could be observed. Still, long-term monitoring on the possibility of gene transfer is necessary to correctly assess the environmental effects of the Bt crop on bacteria.
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ABSTRACT: Natural genetic transformation is the active uptake of free DNA by bacterial cells and the heritable incorporation of its genetic information. Since the famous discovery of transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae by Griffith in 1928 and the demonstration of DNA as the transforming principle by Avery and coworkers in 1944, cellular processes involved in transformation have been studied extensively by in vitro experimentation with a few transformable species. Only more recently has it been considered that transformation may be a powerful mechanism of horizontal gene transfer in natural bacterial populations. In this review the current understanding of the biology of transformation is summarized to provide the platform on which aspects of bacterial transformation in water, soil, and sediments and the habitat of pathogens are discussed. Direct and indirect evidence for gene transfer routes by transformation within species and between different species will be presented, along with data suggesting that plasmids as well as chromosomal DNA are subject to genetic exchange via transformation. Experiments exploring the prerequisites for transformation in the environment, including the production and persistence of free DNA and factors important for the uptake of DNA by cells, will be compiled, as well as possible natural barriers to transformation. The efficiency of gene transfer by transformation in bacterial habitats is possibly genetically adjusted to submaximal levels. The fact that natural transformation has been detected among bacteria from all trophic and taxonomic groups including archaebacteria suggests that transformability evolved early in phylogeny. Probable functions of DNA uptake other than gene acquisition will be discussed. The body of information presently available suggests that transformation has a great impact on bacterial population dynamics as well as on bacterial evolution and speciation.Microbiological reviews 10/1994; 58(3):563-602.
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ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to evaluate the stable insertion and expression of an arsenic resistance operon in the rhizosphere competent, PCB degrading strain Pseudomonas fluorescens F113rifPCB (F113rifPCB) and to investigate its ability to protect plants from arsenic. Introduction of the clone pUM3 (arsRDABC) into F113rifPCB was carried out by triparental conjugation. The resultant arsenic resistant strain was screened through a number of phenotypic tests including ability to grow on biphenyl, its rhizosphere competence and plant protection potential. Insertion and expression of arsenic resistant operon arsRDABC (from plasmid R773) into F113rifPCB strain has allowed this strain to grow, colonize the root and degrade biphenyl (100 mmol l(-1)) in the presence of sodium arsenate concentrations of up to 11.5 mmol l(-1). The strain retains its ability to colonize the rhizosphere of plants and appears to provide seed germination protection to arsenic which is not seen by the wild type. Owing to the significantly improved growth characteristics of both this rhizobacterium and plant species, the use of F113rifPCB-ars endowed with arsenic resistance capabilities may be a promising strategy to remediate mixed organic metal-contaminated sites. These types of strain could be used in the inoculation of metal accumulation plants for phytoremediation.Letters in Applied Microbiology 01/2008; 45(6):668-74. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The nptII(+) gene present in the genome of transgenic potato plants transforms naturally competent cells of the soil bacteria Pseudomonas stutzeri and Acinetobacter BD413 (both harboring a plasmid with an nptII gene containing a small deletion) with the same high efficiency as nptII(+) genes on plasmid DNA (3x10(-5)-1x10(-4) transformants per nptII(+)) despite the presence of a more than 10(6)-fold excess of plant DNA. However, in the absence of homologous sequences in the recipient cells the transformation by nptII(+) dropped by at least about 10(8)-fold in P. stutzeri and 10(9)-fold in Acinetobacter resulting in the latter strain in < or =1x10(-13) transformants per nptII(+). This indicated a very low probability of non-homologous DNA fragments to be integrated by illegitimate recombination events during transformation.FEMS Microbiology Letters 03/2001; 195(2):211-5. · 2.05 Impact Factor