Cyclophilin D interacts with Bcl2 and exerts an anti-apoptotic effect.
ABSTRACT Cyclophilin D (CypD) is a mitochondrial immunophilin and a key positive regulator of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). Several reports have shown that CypD is overexpressed in various tumors, where it has an anti-apoptotic effect. Because the MPT is a cell death-inducing phenomenon, we hypothesized that the anti-apoptotic effect of CypD is independent of the MPT but is due to its interaction with some key apoptosis regulator, such as Bcl2. Our data indicate that CypD indeed interacts with Bcl2 as confirmed with co-immunoprecipitation, pulldown, and mammalian two-hybrid assays. A cyclophilin D inhibitor, cyclosporine A, disrupts the CypD-Bcl2 interaction. CypD enhances the limiting effect of Bcl2 on the tBid-induced release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, which is not mediated via the MPT. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments confirm that CypD has a limiting effect on cytochrome c release from mitochondria and that such an effect of CypD is cyclosporine A- and Bcl2-dependent. On a cellular level, overexpression or knockdown of CypD respectively decreases or increases cytochrome c release from mitochondria and overall cell sensitivity to apoptosis progressing via the "intrinsic" pathway. Therefore, we here describe a novel function of CypD as a Bcl2 collaborator and an inhibitor of cytochrome c release from mitochondria independent of the MPT. This function of CypD may explain the anti-apoptotic effect of this protein observed in various cancer cells. The fact that some tumors overexpress CypD suggests that this may be an additional mechanism of suppression of apoptosis in cancer.
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ABSTRACT: BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (Bid) is a BH3-only pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins. Its function in apoptosis is associated with the proteolytic cleavage to the truncated form tBid, mainly by caspase-8. tBid translocates to mitochondria and assists Bax and Bak in induction of apoptosis. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent alternative processing of Bid to jBid was also reported. We have previously shown that the folate stress enzyme 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (ALDH1L1) activates JNK1 and JNK2 in cancer cells as a pro-apoptotic response. Here we report that in PC-3 prostate cancer cells, JNK1/2 phosphorylate Bid at Thr59 within the caspase cleavage site in response to ALDH1L1. In vitro, all three JNK isoforms, JNK 1-3, phosphorylated Thr59 of Bid with JNK1 being the least active. Thr59 phosphorylation protected Bid from cleavage by caspase-8, resulting in strong accumulation of the full-length protein and its translocation to mitochondria. Interestingly, although we did not observe jBid in response to ALDH1L1 in PC-3 cells, transient expression of Bid mutants lacking the caspase-8 cleavage site resulted in strong accumulation of jBid. Of note, a T59D mutant mimicking constitutive phosphorylation revealed more profound cleavage of Bid to jBid. JNK-driven Bid accumulation had a pro-apoptotic effect in our study: small interfering RNA silencing of either JNK1/2 or Bid prevented Bid phosphorylation and accumulation, and rescued ALDH1L1-expressing cells. As full-length Bid is a weaker apoptogen than tBid, we propose that the phosphorylation of Bid by JNKs, followed by the accumulation of the full-length protein, delays attainment of apoptosis, and allows the cell to evaluate the stress and make a decision regarding the response strategy. This mechanism perhaps can be modified by the alternative cleavage of phospho-T59 Bid to jBid at some conditions.Cell Death & Disease 07/2014; 5:e1358. · 5.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) is a key effector in the pathways to cell death.•The PTP forms from F-ATP synthase and is regulated by several signalling pathways.•Tumor cells desensitize the PTP to Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species increasing their resistance to death.•The PTP is a target for anticancer chemotherapeutics.Cell Calcium 10/2014; · 4.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The mitochondrial permeability transition (PT) -an abrupt increase permeability of the inner membrane to solutes- is a causative event in ischemia-reperfusion injury of the heart, and the focus of intense research in cardioprotection. The PT is due to opening of the PT pore (PTP), a high conductance channel that is critically regulated by a variety of pathophysiological effectors. Very recent work indicates that the PTP forms from the F-ATP synthase, which would switch from an energy-conserving to an energy-dissipating device. This review provides an update on the current debate on how this transition is achieved, and on the PTP as a target for therapeutic intervention.Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 09/2014; 78. · 5.22 Impact Factor