1. The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between electrocardiogram (ECG) patterns of right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) premature ventricular contractions and the three-dimensional distribution of the target sites. 2. Thirty-three consecutive patients were included in the study. The target sites were identified by non-contact mapping and confirmed by successful ablation. The distribution of the target sites in the three-dimensional reconstructed geometry of the RVOT was classified in three directions: (i) anterior (A)/posterior (P); (ii) free wall (F)/septal (Se); and (iii) superior (Su)/inferior (I). The ECG characteristics were then analysed according to the three-dimensional distribution of the target sites. 3. The following indices were helpful to identify the position of the target site: (i) QRS duration (> or = 150 msec = F; < 150 msec = Se; P < 0.05); (ii) the R wave pattern in the inferior leads (RR' or Rr' = F; R = Se; P < 0.05); (iii) the R wave amplitude in the inferior leads (high = Se; low = F; P < 0.05); (iv) the initial r wave width in lead V(1) (wide = F; narrow = Se; P < 0.05); (v) the QS wave amplitude in aVR and aVL (if aVR < aVL, A; if aVR > or = aVL, P; P < 0.05); and (vi) the initial r wave amplitude in lead V(1) and V(2) (if V(1) > or = 0.15 mV and V(2) > or = 0.3 mV, Su; if V(1) < 0.15 mV or V(2) < 0.3 mV, I; P < 0.05). 4. In conclusion, the ECG characteristics were associated with target site locations in all three directions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present an approach that links nonlinear model reduction techniques with control vector parametrization-based schemes to efficiently solve dynamic constraint optimization problems arising in the context of spatially-distributed processes governed by highly-dissipative nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). The proposed approach is applied to a metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy process for the production of GaN thin films, with the objective to minimize the spatial non-uniformity of the deposited film across the substrate surface.
American Control Conference, 2004. Proceedings of the 2004;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this contribution we investigate the influence of the doping element on the contact formation to p+-type Si. Contacting B doped layers with Ag thick film paste leads to very few Ag crystallites at the contact interface and results in poor contact resistances [1–3]. Using Ag/Al thick film paste for contact formation, the contact is not only formed by Ag crystallites, but by diversely shaped Ag/Al contact spots and the contact resistance is reduced by more than one order of magnitude . Al melting at the Si wafer surface forms Al doped rectangles on the Si wafer where the growth of Ag/Al/Pb spikes is enhanced.When contacting Al doped layers with Ag thick film paste a larger number of Ag crystallites is observed than for B doped layers. If the contact is formed with Ag/Al paste the number of Al-rich rectangles is enhanced and we detect higher doped areas under the contact spots. The contacts detected have an ellipsoidal, pyramidal or “L-formed” shape. We conclude that not only the acceptor impurity concentration under the contact area is crucial for the contact formation, but also the properties of the specific acceptor present.
Energy Procedia 12/2011; 8:533-539. DOI:10.1016/j.egypro.2011.06.178
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