The role of anticipated emotion, desire, and intention in the relationship between image and shopping center visits

International Journal of Retail &amp Distribution Management 01/2006; 34(10):709-721. DOI: 10.1108/09590550610691310

ABSTRACT Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify variables that intervene in the relationship between shopping center image and frequency of visits to that shopping center. Variables investigated as intervening are desires, intentions, and positive anticipated emotions. Design/methodology/approach – The method uses a two wave mail survey. One wave gathers intentions and variables antecedent to intentions while a second wave gathers behavioral data. Findings – Findings suggest that desire (i.e. motivation), intention, and positive anticipated emotions intervene between shopping center image and frequency of shopping center visits. Positive anticipated emotions are not emotions felt while shopping but are the expected emotional consequences of achieving a goal, in this case visiting a shopping center. Visiting a shopping center might be a goal in itself or it could be the means to goal attainment (e.g. shopping to get a product). Research limitations/implications – A limitation of the study is that results are aggregated across types of shopping centers and across respondent classifications. Practical implications – Results provide evidence that desire, intention, and positive anticipated emotions intervene between shopping center image and frequency of visits to the shopping center. Implications for shopping center managers are guidance for allocating resources towards increasing desire, intention, and positive anticipated emotions. Originality/value – The value of this study is investigation of the process by which shopping center image impacts the frequency of visits to a shopping center. Focusing on this process should allow shopping center managers to more efficiently allocate resources. The value of this study is offering resource allocation guidance to shopping center managers.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to expand and empirically test a model of tourist external information search behaviour. Design/methodology/approach – A conceptual model was developed based on the “three-pronged approach,” an approach that is used to cross validate among the results from literature review, expert interviews, and an exploratory field study in order to confirm and propose a reliable conceptual model. A confirmatory factor analysis was then performed to ensure that the constructs were valid and reliable. Structural equation modeling was used to test the conceptual model and its hypotheses. Findings – The results revealed six variables that are significantly related to tourists' external information search behavior. Four of these variables had not been identified previously. These are as follows: information sources usefulness and accessibility, subjective norms, perceived personal risk, and ability to search. Research limitations/implications – The issue of model generalization should be taken into account because the samples were limited to non-group tour and first time visited tourists. Further research should consider other tourist groups. Practical implications – The results from this study provide useful information for both government and tourism-related businesses in planning marketing communication strategies to help promote Thailand as a travel destination. Originality/value – By proposing a managerial modeling based on theoretical foundations and methodologies, both quantitative and qualitative approaches, this study is among the first that expands the model of tourist external information search behavior by fully exploring the determinants of external information search behavior and integrates the theory of planned behavior into the model.
    Journal of Modelling in Management 10/2011; 6(3):297-316.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examined the effect of environmentally friendly perceptions on the behavioral intention of visitors at the Boryeong Mud Festival in South Korea. The results of the on-site survey (N = 400) reveal that three environmentally friendly perceptions formed positive and significant causal relationships with the constructs in the extended model of goal-directed behavior (EMGB). Attitude, subjective norm, and positive anticipated emotion affected desire, which, in turn, influenced the behavioral intention. Three elements, volitional, non-volitional, and emotional aspects, were proven to be crucial in comprehending the perceptions and behaviors of the nature-based festival attendees. The findings of this study will shed light on a better understanding of the decision-making processes of festival visitors when environmental issues are incorporated.
    Tourism Management. 12/2012; 33(6):1417–1428.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although there has been extensive research on retail environments and the effects of atmospherics on consumer behaviour, research of this nature in developing countries such as Malaysia is still scant in spite of the proliferation of shopping malls. In this study, the role of atmospherics and locational convenience was examined. The mediating effects of brand trust and brand affect were also tested on the relationship between the dependent variables: atmospherics and locational convenience on flow and the dependent variable using structural equations analysis. Data for the present study were collected from shoppers exiting shopping malls in Kuala Lumpur/Petaling Jaya. A total of 698 responses from 11 malls were analysed. Results show an absence of the direct effect of atmospherics and locational convenience on flow, contrary to findings of past research which show a direct effect on approach/avoidance behaviour. The present study supports findings of more recent studies that suggest the presence of intervening variables, i.e. the hypothesised mediating role of brand trust and brand affect on the relationship between atmospherics and flow, and between locational convenience and flow. Findings suggest that the pleasant environment and locational convenience together evoked brand affect and brand trust, which in turn affects flow. Gender effect on the hypothesised relationships was tested. Results show that male and female shoppers tended to respond differently to the exogenous variables of atmospherics and locational convenience. Limitations and directions for future research are suggested.
    The International Review of Retail Distribution and Consumer Research 01/2012; 22(3):277-291.