Infant feeding and growth.
ABSTRACT It is well documented that the growth patterns of breast-fed and formula-fed infants differ significantly. In industrialised
countries, formula-fed infants generally grow more rapidly than breast-fed infants. In developing countries, the opposite
may be observed, due to high rates of infection associated with bottle-feeding in environments with poor sanitation. This
paper will focus on the former situation, where infant growth is largely unconstrained by environmental factors. The questions
to be addressed are: a) how do growth patterns differ between breast-fed and formula-fed infants, b) how does energy intake
differ between breast-fed and formula-fed infants, c) what are the potential explanations for differences in energy intake
and growth by feeding mode d) what are the long-term consequences of differences in early growth?
SourceAvailable from: Ikuo Kashiwakura[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Breast-feeding and human milk are beneficial for both mothers and their children. This retrospective study aimed to clarify whether differences in feeding mode influence infant weight gain in the first month of life. We analyzed the pregnancy charts of 422 women who delivered at a birthing center in rural Japan between August 1998 and September 2007. The inclusion criteria were low-risk, full-term pregnancy (duration, 37-42 weeks), spontaneous vaginal delivery, and a healthy infant (1 min Apgar score of ≥8) who underwent a health check-up at 1 month postpartum. The subjects were classified into three groups on the basis of feeding modes: exclusive breast-feeding group (28.9%), mixed-feeding group (55.9%) and exclusive formula-feeding group (15.2%). The weight gain/day was 39.7±9.3 g (range, 18.5-67.4 g), 39.5±9.4 g (range, 13.8-64.5 g) and 39.0±9.5 g (range, 14.4-65.3 g) in the exclusive breast-feeding, mixed-feeding and exclusive formula-feeding groups, respectively. Apart from the rate of maternal smoking, which was lower in the exclusive breast-feeding group, no other significant differences were observed among the three groups. This study revealed that there were no differences in weight gain among infants raised exclusively on breast milk and those raised exclusively on formula milk.Experimental and therapeutic medicine 01/2013; 5(1):28-32. DOI:10.3892/etm.2012.741 · 0.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background/Objectives:The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends nutritionally adequate complementary feeding (CF) through the introduction of indigenous foodstuffs and local foods while breastfeeding for at least 2 years. To determine the adequacy of the contribution of CF to the diets of Guatemalan infants at the 7th-12th month of life receiving high-intensity continued breastfeeding.Subjects/Methods:Critical nutrient densities for CF were modelled using age- and sex-specific energy and protein requirements assuming children to be at the 50th weight percentile of local peers and 15th weight percentiles of the 2006 WHO standards. Nutrient requirements for the total diet were determined using the recommended nutrient intakes. Breast milk was assumed to provide 75% of total energy at the 7th-9th month and 50% at the 10th-12th month. Gaps between computed critical nutrient densities and the CF consumption of 128 Guatemalan infants based on data collected by means of three nonconsecutive 24-h quantitative intake recalls were examined. Locally consumed foods with nutrient densities above the modelled critical densities were identified.Results:Observed non-breast milk complementation would result in total diets providing inadequate nutrient density for vitamin A, niacin and vitamin C in some age groups. Major gaps for calcium, iron and zinc were ubiquitous across all groups. Few foods commonly consumed among Guatemalan infants had adequate densities of 'problem nutrients'.Conclusions:The critical nutrient density concept is useful to evaluate the nutrient adequacy of the infant's diet. Fortified foods are essential sources of the main 'problem nutrients', namely calcium, iron and zinc, given that natural sources are scarce.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 7 November 2012; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2012.170.European journal of clinical nutrition 11/2012; DOI:10.1038/ejcn.2012.170 · 2.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: All over Latin America, indigenous populations are rapidly changing their lifestyle. This work elaborates on the complex experience of indigenous people in transition. Poverty, discrimination, marginalization, and endurance are defining characteristics of their everyday life. Global health programs represent excellent opportunities for addressing these issues. However, these initiatives are at risk of being short-sighted, ethnocentric and paradigm-centric. Global health programs would be increasingly more successful if they break disciplinary boundaries and invite actors with different perspectives to a dialog that does not emphasize biology over culture or academic over community expertise.Health Care For Women International 09/2014; DOI:10.1080/07399332.2014.954704 · 0.63 Impact Factor