Noninvasive radiofrequency field-induced hyperthermic cytotoxicity in human cancer cells using cetuximab-targeted gold nanoparticles.
ABSTRACT Shortwave (MHz range) radiofrequency (RF) energy is nonionizing, penetrates deeply into biologic tissues with no adverse side effects, and heats gold nanoparticles efficiently. Targeted delivery of gold nanoparticles to cancer cells should result in hyperthermic cytotoxicity upon exposure to a focused, noninvasive RF field. In this report we demonstrate that gold nanoparticles conjugated with cetuximab (C225) are quickly internalized by Panc-1 (pancreatic adenocarcinoma) and Difi (colorectal adenocarcinoma) cancer cells overexpressing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Panc-1 or Difi cells treated with naked gold nanoparticles or nonspecific IgG-conjugated gold nanoparticles demonstrated minimal intracellular uptake of gold nanoparticles by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In contrast, there were dense concentrations of cytoplasmic vesicles containing gold nanoparticles following treatment with cetuximab-conjugated gold nanoparticles. Exposure of cells to a noninvasive RF field produced nearly 100% cytotoxicity in cells treated with the cetuximab-conjugated gold nanoparticles, but significantly lower levels of cytotoxicity in the two control groups (P < 0.00012). Treatment of a breast cancer cell line (CAMA-1) that does not express EGFR with cetuximab-conjugated gold nanoparticles produced no enhanced cytotoxicity following treatment in the RF field. Conjugation of cancer cell-directed targeting agents to gold nanoparticles may represent an effective and cancer-specific therapy to treat numerous types of human malignant disease using noninvasive RF hyperthermia.
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ABSTRACT: Electromagnetic absorption and subsequent heating of nanoparticle solutions and simple NaCl ionic solutions is examined for biomedical applications in the radiofrequency range at 13.56 MHz. It is shown via both theory and experiment that for in vitro measurements the shape of the solution container plays a major role in absorption and heating.IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering 09/2012; 59(12). DOI:10.1109/TBME.2012.2219049 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are nontoxic, can be functionalized with ligands, and preferentially accumulate in tumors. We have developed a 13.56-MHz RF-electromagnetic field (RFEM) delivery system capable of generating high E-fleld strengths required for noninvasive, noncontact heating of GNPs. The bulk heating and specific heating rates were measured as a function of NP size and concentration. It was found that heating is both size and concentration dependent, with 5 nm particles producing a 50.6 ± 0.2°C temperature rise in 30 s for 25 μg/mL gold (125 W input). The specific heating rate was also size and concentration dependent, with 5 nm particles producing a specific heating rate of 356 ± 78 kW/g gold at 16 μg/mL (125 W input). Furthermore, we demonstrate that cancer cells incubated with GNPs are killed when exposed to 13.56 MHz RF-EM fields. Compared to cells that were not incubated with GNPs, three out of four RF-treated groups showed a significant enhancement of cell death with GNPs (p <; 0.05). GNP-enhanced cell killing appears to require temperatures above 50°C for the experimental parameters used in this study. Transmission electron micrographs show extensive vacuolization with the combination of GNPs and RF treatment.IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 08/2011; 58(7-58):2002 - 2012. DOI:10.1109/TBME.2011.2124460 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: High atomic number (Z) materials such as gold preferentially absorb kilovoltage x-rays compared to soft tissue and may be used to achieve local dose enhancement in tumours during treatment with ionizing radiation. Gold nanoparticles have been demonstrated as radiation dose enhancing agents in vivo and in vitro. In the present study, we used multiple endpoints to characterize the cellular cytotoxic response of a range of cell lines to 1.9 nm gold particles and measured dose modifying effects following transient exposure at low concentrations. Gold nanoparticles caused significant levels of cell type specific cytotoxicity, apoptosis and increased oxidative stress. When used as dose modifying agents, dose enhancement factors varied between the cell lines investigated with the highest enhancement being 1.9 in AGO-1522B cells at a nanoparticle concentration of 100 microg ml(-1). This study shows exposure to 1.9 nm gold particles to induce a range of cell line specific responses including decreased clonogenic survival, increased apoptosis and induction of DNA damage which may be mediated through the production of reactive oxygen species. This is the first study involving 1.9 nm nanometre sized particles to report multiple cellular responses which impact on the radiation dose modifying effect. The findings highlight the need for extensive characterization of responses to gold nanoparticles when assessing dose enhancing potential in cancer therapy.Nanotechnology 07/2010; 21(29):295101. DOI:10.1088/0957-4484/21/29/295101 · 3.67 Impact Factor