Rodent incisors are continuously growing teeth that include all stages of amelogenesis. Understanding amelogenesis requires investigations of the genes and their gene products control the ameloblast phenotype. One of the mechanisms related to tooth differentiation is mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. The extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) cascade is associated with mechanisms that control the cell cycle and cell survival. However, the roles of cascades in incisor development remain to be determined. In this study, we investigated incisor development and growth in the mouse based on MAPK signaling. Moreover, heat-shock protein (Hsp)-25 is well known to be a useful marker of odontoblast differentiation. We used anisomycin (a protein-synthesis inhibitor that activates MAPKs) and U0126 (a MAPK inhibitor that blocks ERK1/2 phosphorylation) to examine the role of MAPKs in Hsp25 signaling in the development of the mouse incisor. We performed immunohistochemistry and in vitro culture using incisor tooth germ, and found that phospho-ERK (pERK), pMEK, and Hsp25 localized in developing incisor ameloblasts and anisomycin failed to produce incisor development. In addition, Western blotting results showed that anisomycin stimulated the phosphorylation of ERK, MEK, and Hsp25, and that some of these proteins were blocked by the U0126. These findings suggest that MAPK signals play important roles in incisor formation, differentiation, and development by mediating Hsp25 signaling.
"Rodent incisors are continuously growing teeth performing all stages of odontogenesis, including amelogenesis and dentinogenesis. In their recent work, Lee et al. (2009) explored mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling during incisor development and growth in the mouse. By using pharmaceutical activation and inhibition of MAPKs in in vitro cultures, important functions of MAPKs for amelogenesis were found, which were partly involving Hsp25 signaling activated by phosphorylated ERK and MEK. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Central to modern Histochemistry and Cell Biology stands the need for visualization of cellular and molecular processes. In the past several years, a variety of techniques has been achieved bridging traditional light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy with powerful software-based post-processing and computer modeling. Researchers now have various tools available to investigate problems of interest from bird's- up to worm's-eye of view, focusing on tissues, cells, proteins or finally single molecules. Applications of new approaches in combination with well-established traditional techniques of mRNA, DNA or protein analysis have led to enlightening and prudent studies which have paved the way toward a better understanding of not only physiological but also pathological processes in the field of cell biology. This review is intended to summarize articles standing for the progress made in "histo-biochemical" techniques and their manifold applications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Differentiation of ameloblasts from undifferentiated epithelial cells is controlled by diverse growth factors, as well as interactions between epithelium and mesenchyme. However, there is a considerable lack of knowledge regarding the precise mechanisms that control ameloblast differentiation and enamel biomineralization. We found that the expression level of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) is strongly up-regulated in parallel with differentiation of enamel epithelium tissues, while the enzyme activity of CA was also increased along with differentiation in ameloblast primary cultures. The expression level of amelogenin, a marker of secretory-stage ameloblasts, was enhanced by ethoxzolamide (EZA), a CA inhibitor, as well as CAII antisense (CAIIAS), whereas the expression of enamel matrix serine proteinase-1 (EMSP-1), a marker for maturation-stage ameloblasts, was suppressed by both. These agents also promoted ameloblast proliferation. In addition, inhibition of ameloblast differentiation by EZA and CAIIAS was confirmed using tooth germ organ cultures. Furthermore, EZA and CAIIAS elevated intracellular pH in ameloblasts, while experimental decreases in intracellular pH abolished the effect of CAIIAS on ameloblasts and triggered the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). SP600125, a JNK inhibitor, abrogated the response of ameloblasts to an experimental decrease in intracellular pH, while the inhibition of JNK also impaired ameloblast differentiation. These results suggest a novel role for CAII during amelogenesis, that is, controlling the differentiation of ameloblasts. Regulation of intracellular pH, followed by activation of the JNK signaling pathway, may be responsible for the effects of CAII on ameloblasts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is required in many biological processes, including signaling cascades, skeletal development, tooth mineralization, and nucleic acid synthesis. Recently, we showed that Pi transport in osteoblasts, mediated by Slc20a1, a member of the type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporter family, is indispensable for osteoid mineralization in rapidly growing rat bone. In addition, we found that bone mineral density decreased slightly with dysfunction of Pi homeostasis in aged transgenic rats overexpressing mouse Slc20a1 (Slc20a1-Tg). Bone and tooth share certain common molecular features, and thus, we focused on tooth development in Slc20a1-Tg mandibular incisors in order to determine the role of Slc20a1 in tooth mineralization. Around the time of weaning, there were no significant differences in serologic parameters between wild-type and Slc20a1-Tg rats. However, histological analysis showed that Slc20a1-Tg ameloblasts formed clusters in the papillary layer during the maturation stage as early as 4 weeks of age. These pathologies became more severe with age and included the formation of cyst-like or multilayer ameloblast structures, accompanied by a chalky white appearance with abnormal attrition and fracture. Hyperphosphatemia was also observed in aging Slc20a1-Tg rats. Micro-computed tomography and electron probe microanalysis revealed impairments in enamel, such as delayed mineralization and hypomineralization. Our results suggest that enamel formation is sensitive to imbalances in Pit1-mediated cellular function as seen in bone, although these processes are under the control of systemic Pi homeostasis.
Calcified Tissue International 06/2011; 89(3):192-202. DOI:10.1007/s00223-011-9506-0 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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