[Estimated sodium intake by the Brazilian population, 2002-2003].
ABSTRACT To estimate the magnitude and distribution of sodium intake in Brazil and to identify major dietary sources contributing to this intake.
Estimates were based on data from a Brazilian household budget survey carried between July 2002 and June 2003. A total of 969,989 food purchase records from a probabilistic sample of 48,470 households located in 3,984 census tracts across the country were analyzed. Purchase records were converted into nutrients using food composition charts. Mean sodium availability per person per day and mean adjusted availability considering a 2,000 kcal daily energy intake were calculated, as well as the contribution of selected food groups to total household sodium availability. Estimates are presented according to geographical region, urban or rural status of the household, and income stratum.
Mean daily sodium availability in Brazilian households was 4.5 g per person (or 4.7 g considering a daily calorie intake of 2,000 kcal), thus exceeding by more than two times the recommended levels of intake for this nutrient. Although most of the sodium available for intake across all income strata was derived from kitchen salt or salt-based condiments (76.2%), the fraction derived from processed foods with added salt showed a strong linear increase as household purchasing power increased, representing 9.7% of total sodium intake in the lower quintile of the per capita income distribution and 25.0% in the upper quintile.
Results indicate that sodium intake in Brazil widely exceeds the maximum recommended intake level for this nutrient in all of the country's macro regions and across all income strata.
Article: National Approaches to Monitoring Population Salt Intake: A Trade-Off between Accuracy and Practicality?[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is strong evidence that diets high in salt are bad for health and that salt reduction strategies are cost effective. However, whilst it is clear that most people are eating too much salt, obtaining an accurate assessment of population salt intake is not straightforward, particularly in resource poor settings. The objective of this study is to identify what approaches governments are taking to monitoring salt intake, with the ultimate goal of identifying what actions are needed to address challenges to monitoring salt intake, especially in low and middle-income countries. A written survey was issued to governments to establish the details of their monitoring methods. Of the 30 countries that reported conducting formal government salt monitoring activities, 73% were high income countries. Less than half of the 30 countries, used the most accurate assessment of salt through 24 hour urine, and only two of these were developing countries. The remainder mainly relied on estimates through dietary surveys. The study identified a strong need to establish more practical ways of assessing salt intake as well as technical support and advice to ensure that low and middle income countries can implement salt monitoring activities effectively.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(10):e46727. · 4.09 Impact Factor