Protein allostery, signal transmission and dynamics: a classification scheme of allosteric mechanisms
ABSTRACT Allostery has come of age; the number, breadth and functional roles of documented protein allostery cases are rising quickly. Since all dynamic proteins are potentially allosteric and allostery plays crucial roles in all cellular pathways, sorting and classifying allosteric mechanisms in proteins should be extremely useful in understanding and predicting how the signals are regulated and transmitted through the dynamic multi-molecular cellular organizations. Classification organizes the complex information thereby unraveling relationships and patterns in molecular activation and repression. In signaling, current classification schemes consider classes of molecules according to their functions; for example, epinephrine and norepinephrine secreted by the central nervous system are classified as neurotransmitters. Other schemes would account for epinephrine when secreted by the adrenal medulla to be hormone-like. Yet, such classifications account for the global function of the molecule; not for the molecular mechanism of how the signal transmission initiates and how it is transmitted. Here we provide a unified view of allostery and the first classification framework. We expect that a classification scheme would assist in comprehension of allosteric mechanisms, in prediction of signaling on the molecular level, in better comprehension of pathways and regulation of the complex signals, in translating them to the cascading events, and in allosteric drug design. We further provide a range of examples illustrating mechanisms in protein allostery and their classification from the cellular functional standpoint.
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ABSTRACT: Allosteric drugs are usually more specific and have fewer side effects than orthosteric drugs targeting the same protein. Here, we overview the current knowledge on allosteric signal transmission from the network point of view, and show that most intra-protein conformational changes may be dynamically transmitted across protein-protein interaction and signaling networks of the cell. Allo-network drugs influence the pharmacological target protein indirectly using specific inter-protein network pathways. We show that allo-network drugs may have a higher efficiency to change the networks of human cells than those of other organisms, and can be designed to have specific effects on cells in a diseased state. Finally, we summarize possible methods to identify allo-network drug targets and sites, which may develop to a promising new area of systems-based drug design.Current topics in medicinal chemistry 01/2013; DOI:10.2174/1568026611313010007 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Our understanding of both the nature and diversity of Staphylococcal immune evasion proteins has increased tremendously throughout the last several years. Among this group of molecules, members of the SCIN and Efb families of complement inhibitors have been the subject of particularly intense study. This work has demonstrated that both types of proteins exert their primary function by inhibiting C3 convertases, which lie at the heart of the complement-mediated immune response. Despite this similarity, however, significant differences in structure/function relationships and mechanisms of action exist between these bacterial proteins. Furthermore, divergent secondary effects on host immune responses have also been described for these two protein families. This chapter summarizes recent advances toward understanding the structure, function, and mechanism of the SCIN and Efb families, and suggests potential directions for the field over the coming years.Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 01/2012; 946:113-33. DOI:10.1007/978-1-4614-0106-3_7 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The concept of intra-membrane receptor-receptor interactions (RRIs) between different types of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and evidence for their existence was introduced by Agnati and Fuxe in 1980/81 through the biochemical analysis of the effects of neuropeptides on the binding characteristics of monoamine receptors in membrane preparations from discrete brain regions and functional studies of the interactions between neuropeptides and monoamines in the control of specific functions such as motor control and arterial blood pressure control in animal models. Whether GPCRs can form high-order structures is still a topic of an intense debate. Increasing evidence, however, suggests that the hypothesis of the existence of high-order receptor oligomers is correct. A fundamental consequence of the view describing GPCRs as interacting structures, with the likely formation at the plasma membrane of receptor aggregates of multiple receptors (Receptor Mosaics) is that it is no longer possible to describe signal transduction simply as the result of the binding of the chemical signal to its receptor, but rather as the result of a filtering/integration of chemical signals by the Receptor Mosaics (RMs) and membrane-associated proteins. Thus, in parallel with experimental research, significant efforts were spent in bioinformatics and mathematical modelling. We review here the main approaches that have been used to assess the interaction interfaces allowing the assembly of GPCRs and to shed some light on the integrative functions emerging from the complex behaviour of these RMs. Particular attention was paid to the RMs generated by adenosine A(2A), dopamine D(2), cannabinoid CB(1), and metabotropic glutamate mGlu(5) receptors (A(2A), D(2), CB(1) and mGlu(5), respectively), and a possible approach to model the interplay between the D(2)-A(2A)-CB(1) and D(2)-A(2A)-mGlu(5) trimers is proposed.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/2010; 1808(5):1267-83. DOI:10.1016/j.bbamem.2010.09.022 · 4.66 Impact Factor