Regulation of distinct septin rings in a single cell by Elm1p and Gin4p kinases.
ABSTRACT Septins are conserved, GTP-binding proteins that assemble into higher order structures, including filaments and rings with varied cellular functions. Using four-dimensional quantitative fluorescence microscopy of Ashbya gossypii fungal cells, we show that septins can assemble into morphologically distinct classes of rings that vary in dimensions, intensities, and positions within a single cell. Notably, these different classes coexist and persist for extended times, similar in appearance and behavior to septins in mammalian neurons and cultured cells. We demonstrate that new septin proteins can add through time to assembled rings, indicating that septins may continue to polymerize during ring maturation. Different classes of rings do not arise from the presence or absence of specific septin subunits and ring maintenance does not require the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. Instead, morphological and behavioral differences in the rings require the Elm1p and Gin4p kinases. This work demonstrates that distinct higher order septin structures form within one cell because of the action of specific kinases.
Article: Cytoplasmic dynein is required to oppose the force that moves nuclei towards the hyphal tip in the filamentous ascomycete Ashbya gossypii.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We have followed the migration of GFP-labelled nuclei in multinucleate hyphae of Ashbya gossypii. For the first time we could demonstrate that the mode of long range nuclear migration consists of oscillatory movements of nuclei with, on average, higher amplitudes in the direction of the growing tip. We could also show that mitotic division proceeds at a constant rate of 0. 64 microm/minute which differs from the biphasic kinetics described for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore we were able to identify the microtubule-based motor dynein as a key element in the control of long range nuclear migration. For other filamentous fungi it had already been demonstrated that inactivating mutations in dynein led to severe problems in nuclear migration, i.e. generation of long nuclei-free hyphal tips and clusters of nuclei throughout the hyphae. This phenotype supported the view that dynein is important for the movement of nuclei towards the tip. In A. gossypii the opposite seems to be the case. A complete deletion of the dynein heavy chain gene leads to nuclear clusters exclusively at the hyphal tips and to an essentially nucleus-free network of hyphal tubes and branches. Anucleate hyphae and branches in the vicinity of nuclear clusters show actin cables and polarized actin patches, as well as microtubules. The slow growth of this dynein null mutant could be completely reverted to wild-type-like growth in the presence of benomyl, which can be explained by the observed redistribution of nuclei in the hyphal network.Journal of Cell Science 04/2001; 114(Pt 5):975-86. · 6.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Septins are GTP-binding proteins that assemble into homo- and hetero-oligomers and filaments. Although they have key roles in various cellular processes, little is known concerning the structure of septin subunits or the organization and polarity of septin complexes. Here we present the structures of the human SEPT2 G domain and the heterotrimeric human SEPT2-SEPT6-SEPT7 complex. The structures reveal a universal bipolar polymer building block, composed of an extended G domain, which forms oligomers and filaments by conserved interactions between adjacent nucleotide-binding sites and/or the amino- and carboxy-terminal extensions. Unexpectedly, X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy showed that the predicted coiled coils are not involved in or required for complex and/or filament formation. The asymmetrical heterotrimers associate head-to-head to form a hexameric unit that is nonpolarized along the filament axis but is rotationally asymmetrical. The architecture of septin filaments differs fundamentally from that of other cytoskeletal structures.Nature 10/2007; 449(7160):311-5. · 36.28 Impact Factor