Article

"Real-World" Effectiveness of Reactive Telephone Counseling for Smoking Cessation A Randomized Controlled Trial

Department of Medicine, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA.
Chest (Impact Factor: 7.13). 03/2009; 136(5):1229-36. DOI: 10.1378/chest.08-2425
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Reactive telephone helplines for smoking cessation (where all calls to counselors are smoker initiated) are increasingly used in the United States. However, limited data from randomized controlled trials are available on their effectiveness. The study objective was to evaluate the real-world effectiveness of reactive telephone counseling for smoking cessation using a randomized controlled trial study design.
The study was implemented during a period from 2003 to 2006 to evaluate a reactive telephone helpline run by the American Lung Association chapter of Illinois-Iowa. The 990 new callers, all adult current smokers who called the helpline, were randomized on their first call into one of the two following groups: a control group that received only mailed self-help literature (n = 496); and a study group that received supplemental live reactive telephone counseling (n = 494). Telephone follow-up was completed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after study enrollment by interviewers blinded to group assignment. Seven-day point prevalence rates of self-reported abstinence at follow-up evaluations were compared between the two groups using an intent-to-treat design.
The two groups did not differ significantly in baseline demographics and smoking-related behavior. The abstinence rates (ranging between 0.09 and 0.15) were not significantly different between the two groups at 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up evaluations. Post hoc subgroup analysis showed that black callers had lower abstinence rates at the 3- and 12-month follow-up evaluations as compared with white callers.
Supplemental live, reactive telephone counseling does not provide greater success in smoking cessation than self-help educational materials alone.

0 Followers
 · 
109 Views
  • Source
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To assess the effectiveness of telehealth interventions in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in adult patients in community settings. Systematic literature review, conducted in June 2013, of randomised controlled trials comparing the effectiveness of telehealth interventions to reduce overall cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and/or to reduce multiple CVD risk factors compared with a non-telehealth control group. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Fixed and Random effects models were combined with a narrative synthesis for meta-analysis of included studies. Three of 13 included studies measured Framingham 10-year CVD risk scores, and meta-analysis showed no clear evidence of reduction in overall risk (SMD -0.37%, 95% CI -2.08, 1.33). There was weak evidence for a reduction in systolic blood pressure (SMD -1.22mmHg 95% CI -2.80, 0.35) and total cholesterol (SMD -0.07mmol/L 95% CI -0.19, 0.06). There was no change in High-Density Lipoprotein cholesterol or smoking rates. There is insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of telehealth interventions in reducing overall CVD risk. More studies are needed that consistently measure overall CVD risk, directly compare different telehealth interventions, and determine cost effectiveness of telehealth interventions for prevention of CVD.
    Preventive Medicine 04/2014; 64. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.04.001 · 2.93 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Telephone services can provide information and support for smokers. Counselling may be provided proactively or offered reactively to callers to smoking cessation helplines. To evaluate the effect of proactive and reactive telephone support via helplines and in other settings to help smokers quit. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register for studies of telephone counselling, using search terms including 'hotlines' or 'quitline' or 'helpline'. Date of the most recent search: May 2013. randomized or quasi-randomised controlled trials in which proactive or reactive telephone counselling to assist smoking cessation was offered to smokers or recent quitters. One author identified and data extracted trials, and a second author checked them. The main outcome measure was the risk ratio for abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up. We selected the strictest measure of abstinence, using biochemically validated rates where available. We considered participants lost to follow-up to be continuing smokers. Where trials had more than one arm with a less intensive intervention we used only the most similar intervention without the telephone component as the control group in the primary analysis. We assessed statistical heterogeneity amongst subgroups of clinically comparable studies using the I² statistic. We considered trials recruiting callers to quitlines separately from studies recruiting in other settings. Where appropriate, we pooled studies using a fixed-effect model. We used a meta-regression to investigate the effect of differences in planned number of calls, selection for motivation, and the nature of the control condition (self help only, minimal intervention, pharmacotherapy) in the group of studies recruiting in non-quitline settings. Seventy-seven trials met the inclusion criteria. Some trials were judged to be at risk of bias in some domains but overall we did not judge the results to be at high risk of bias. Among smokers who contacted helplines, quit rates were higher for groups randomized to receive multiple sessions of proactive counselling (nine studies, > 24,000 participants, risk ratio (RR) for cessation at longest follow-up 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26 to 1.50). There was mixed evidence about whether increasing the number of calls altered quit rates but most trials used more than two calls. Three studies comparing different counselling approaches during a single quitline contact did not detect significant differences. Of three studies that tested the provision of access to a hotline two detected a significant benefit and one did not.Telephone counselling not initiated by calls to helplines also increased quitting (51 studies, > 30,000 participants, RR 1.27; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.36). In a meta-regression controlling for other factors the effect was estimated to be slightly larger if more calls were offered, and in trials that specifically recruited smokers motivated to try to quit. The relative extra benefit of counselling was smaller when it was provided in addition to pharmacotherapy (usually nicotine replacement therapy) than when the control group only received self-help material or a brief intervention.A further eight studies were too diverse to contribute to meta-analyses and are discussed separately. Two compared different intensities of counselling, both of which detected a dose response; one of these detected a benefit of multiple counselling sessions over a single call for people prescribed bupropion. The others tested a variety of interventions largely involving offering telephone counselling as part of a referral or systems change and none detected evidence of effect. Proactive telephone counselling aids smokers who seek help from quitlines. Telephone quitlines provide an important route of access to support for smokers, and call-back counselling enhances their usefulness. There is limited evidence about the optimal number of calls. Proactive telephone counselling also helps people who receive it in other settings. There is some evidence of a dose response; one or two brief calls are less likely to provide a measurable benefit. Three or more calls increase the chances of quitting compared to a minimal intervention such as providing standard self-help materials, or brief advice, or compared to pharmacotherapy alone.
    Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 08/2013; 8(8):CD002850. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD002850.pub3 · 5.94 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
0 Downloads
Available from