Transforming Growth Factor Can Stimulate Smad1 Phosphorylation Independently of Bone Morphogenic Protein Receptors

Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery and Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.57). 03/2009; 284(15):9755-63. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M809223200
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) superfamily ligands control a diverse set of cellular processes by activating type I and type II serine-threonine receptor kinases. Canonical TGFbeta signaling is mediated via the TbetaRI/ALK5 type I receptor that phosphorylates Smad2 and Smad3 in their SXS motif to facilitate their activation and subsequent role in transcriptional regulation. Canonical bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling is mediated via the ALK1/2/3/6 type I receptors that phosphorylate Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8 in their SXS motif. However, studies in endothelial cells have shown that TGFbeta can also lead to the phosphorylation of Smad1, dependent on ALK1 receptor activity. Here we present data showing that TGFbeta can significantly induce Smad1 phosphorylation in several non-endothelial cell lineages. Additionally, by using chemical inhibitors specific for the TGFbeta/activin/nodal (ALK4/5/7) and BMP (ALK1/2/3/6) type I receptors, we show that in some cell types TGFbeta induces Smad1 phosphorylation independently of the BMP type I receptors. Thus, TGFbeta-mediated Smad1 phosphorylation appears to occur via different receptor complexes in a cell type-specific manner.

  • Source
    • "We found however, that SMAD2/3 phosphorylation increased only after prolonged obstruction (6 weeks). The ability of TGF-β to activate noncanonical SMAD signaling in a Ras/MEK/ERK-dependent manner is well established [34-36], and in keeping with this possibility, we also observed ERK1/2 phosphorylation coinciding with early SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation. One possibility, therefore, is that increased TGF-β mRNA levels at 10 days reflect production of bioactive TGF-β that signals via the noncanonical (SMAD1/5/8) pathway. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent work has uncovered a role of the microRNA (miRNA) miR-29 in remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Partial bladder outlet obstruction is a prevalent condition in older men with prostate enlargement that leads to matrix synthesis in the lower urinary tract and increases bladder stiffness. Here we tested the hypothesis that miR-29 is repressed in the bladder in outlet obstruction and that this has an impact on protein synthesis and matrix remodeling leading to increased bladder stiffness. c-Myc, NF-κB and SMAD3, all of which repress miR-29, were activated in the rat detrusor following partial bladder outlet obstruction but at different times. c-Myc and NF-κB activation occurred early after obstruction, and SMAD3 phosphorylation increased later, with a significant elevation at 6 weeks. c-Myc, NF-κB and SMAD3 activation, respectively, correlated with repression of miR-29b and miR-29c at 10 days of obstruction and with repression of miR-29c at 6 weeks. An mRNA microarray analysis showed that the reduction of miR-29 following outlet obstruction was associated with increased levels of miR-29 target mRNAs, including mRNAs for tropoelastin, the matricellular protein Sparc and collagen IV. Outlet obstruction increased protein levels of eight out of eight examined miR-29 targets, including tropoelastin and Sparc. Transfection of human bladder smooth muscle cells with antimiR-29c and miR-29c mimic caused reciprocal changes in target protein levels in vitro. Tamoxifen inducible and smooth muscle-specific deletion of Dicer in mice reduced miR-29 expression and increased tropoelastin and the thickness of the basal lamina surrounding smooth muscle cells in the bladder. It also increased detrusor stiffness independent of outlet obstruction. Taken together, our study supports a model where the combined repressive influences of c-Myc, NF-κB and SMAD3 reduce miR-29 in bladder outlet obstruction, and where the resulting drop in miR-29 contributes to matrix remodeling and altered passive mechanical properties of the detrusor.
    PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e82308. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0082308 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "The EC lines that consistently trigger a TGFβ/pSMAD1/5/8 response are immortalized mouse lines such as MEEC [15] or SVR, bEnd.3 and C166 (Fig. 1). While there is no doubt that TGFβ/pSMAD1 signaling can be detected in many cell types ranging from fibroblasts [35] to cancer cell lines [36], [37], and a variety of immortalized cells of mesenchymal and epithelial origin [38], it does not appear to be a signaling feature of primary human EC. Our findings in this area are in agreement with results from a very recent study [39]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Endoglin (ENG), a co-receptor for several TGFβ-family cytokines, is expressed in dividing endothelial cells alongside ALK1, the ACVRL1 gene product. ENG and ACVRL1 are both required for angiogenesis and mutations in either gene are associated with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangectasia, a rare genetic vascular disorder. ENG and ALK1 function in the same genetic pathway but the relative contribution of TGFβ and BMP9 to SMAD1/5/8 activation and the requirement of ENG as a co-mediator of SMAD phosphorylation in endothelial cells remain debated. Here, we show that BMP9 and TGFβ1 induce distinct SMAD phosphorylation responses in primary human endothelial cells and that, unlike BMP9, TGFβ only induces SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation in a subset of immortalized mouse endothelial cell lines, but not in primary human endothelial cells. We also demonstrate, using siRNA depletion of ENG and novel anti-ENG antibodies, that ENG is required for BMP9/pSMAD1 signaling in all human and mouse endothelial cells tested. Finally, anti-ENG antibodies that interfere with BMP9/pSMAD1 signaling, but not with TGFβ1/pSMAD3 signaling, also decrease in vitro HUVEC endothelial tube formation and inhibit BMP9 binding to recombinant ENG in vitro. Our data demonstrate that BMP9 signaling inhibition is a key and previously unreported mechanism of action of TRC105, an anti-angiogenic anti-Endoglin antibody currently evaluated in clinical trials.
    PLoS ONE 12/2012; 7(12):e50920. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0050920 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "This circuit might enable multiple expression patterns of Nodal in response to different concentrations of BMP. Crosstalk between BMP signaling and TGF-b signaling is crucial for patterning of the body axes, germ layer patterning in the embryonic stem cells, and differentiation of mesenchymal cells, such as C2C12, ATDC5, and MEFs (Candia et al., 1997; Furtado et al., 2008; Keller et al., 2011; Watabe and Miyazono, 2009; Wrighton et al., 2009; Yamamoto et al., 2009). We believe our new findings will aid in the understanding of the complicated spatio-temporal patterns of gene expression that are associated with cell differentiation during different aspects of development. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During development of left-right asymmetry in the vertebrate embryo, Nodal plays a central role for determination of left-handedness. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling has an important role for regulation of Nodal expression, although there is controversy over whether BMP signaling has a positive or negative effect on Nodal expression in the chick embryo. As BMP is a morphogen, we speculated that different concentrations might induce different responses in the cells of the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM). To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the effects of various concentrations of BMP4 and NOGGIN on Nodal expression in the LPM. We found that the effect on Nodal expression varied in a complex fashion with the concentration of BMP. In agreement with previous reports, we found that a high level of BMP signaling induced Nodal expression in the LPM, whereas a low level inhibited expression. However, a high intermediate level of BMP signaling was found to suppress Nodal expression in the left LPM, whereas a low intermediate level induced Nodal expression in the right LPM. Thus, the high and the low intermediate levels of BMP signaling up-regulated Nodal expression, but the high intermediate and low levels of BMP signaling down-regulated Nodal expression. Next, we sought to identify the mechanisms of this complex regulation of Nodal expression by BMP signaling. At the low intermediate level of BMP signaling, regulation depended on a NODAL positive-feedback loop suggesting the possibility of crosstalk between BMP and NODAL signaling. Overexpression of a constitutively active BMP receptor, a constitutively active ACTIVIN/NODAL receptor and SMAD4 indicated that SMAD1 and SMAD2 competed for binding to SMAD4 in the cells of the LPM. Nodal regulation by the high and low levels of BMP signaling was dependent on Cfc up-regulation or down-regulation, respectively. We propose a model for the variable effects of BMP signaling on Nodal expression in which different levels of BMP signaling regulate Nodal expression by a balance between BMP-pSMAD1/4 signaling and NODAL-pSMAD2/4 signaling.
    Developmental Biology 11/2012; 374(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ydbio.2012.11.027 · 3.64 Impact Factor
Show more