Article

Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury: Current Concepts for the Clinician

Department of Pathology, Division of Transfusion Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Institute for Transfusion Medicine, 3636 Blvd of the Allies, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.
Anesthesia and analgesia (Impact Factor: 3.42). 04/2009; 108(3):770-6. DOI: 10.1213/ane.0b013e31819029b2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The leading cause of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality in the United States is transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). Diagnostic criteria for TRALI have recently been developed and primarily consist of hypoxia and bilateral pulmonary edema occurring during or within 6 h of a transfusion in the absence of cardiac failure or intravascular volume overload. The primary differential diagnosis is transfusion-associated circulatory overload and differentiation can be difficult. Treatment is supportive with oxygen and mechanical ventilation. Diuresis is not indicated and the role of steroids is unproven. Patients typically recover within a few days. All types of blood products have been associated with TRALI, however, the plasma-rich components, such as fresh frozen plasma and apheresis platelets, have been most frequently implicated. The pathogenesis of TRALI is not completely understood. Leukocyte antibodies in donor plasma have been implicated in most cases with antibodies directed at human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I, HLA class II or neutrophil-specific antigens, particularly HNA-3a. Activation of pulmonary endothelium is important in the development of TRALI and may account for most cases being observed in surgical or intensive care unit patients. Transfused leukoagglutinating antibodies bind to recipients' neutrophils localized to pulmonary endothelium resulting in activation and release of oxidases and other damaging biologic response modifiers that cause capillary leak. In a minority of TRALI cases, no antibodies are identified and it is postulated that neutrophil priming factors in the transfused component can mediate TRALI in a patient with pulmonary endothelial activation, the so called "two hit" mechanism. Recognition of the role of anti-leukocyte antibodies has led to new strategies to reduce the risk of TRALI. Female blood donors with a previous pregnancy frequently have HLA antibodies with an overall prevalence of 24% and increasing prevalence related to the number of previous pregnancies. Since HLA antibodies have been implicated in TRALI, blood centers have adopted policies to produce plasma components primarily from male donors. Strategies to reduce the risk from apheresis platelets are problematic and are likely to involve testing female apheresis platelet donors for HLA antibodies. Much more research is needed to understand the blood component and patient risk factors for TRALI so that novel strategies for treatment and additional measures to reduce the risk of TRALI can be developed.

0 Followers
 · 
165 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bleeding is the second leading cause of death after trauma. Initial care of the patient with hemorrhage focuses on restoring circulating blood volume and reversing coagulopathy. Trauma and injury can initiate the coagulation cascade. Patients with massive bleeding should be resuscitated with goal-directed therapy. Hemostatic resuscitation in conjunction with ratio-based transfusion and massive transfusion protocols should be utilized while awaiting hemorrhage control. The military initiated massive transfusion protocols in the battlefield. We discuss the coagulation cascade, recent recommendations of goal-directed therapy, massive transfusion protocols, fixed ratios, and the future of transfusion medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.emc.2014.07.005 · 0.85 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a serious complication of transfusion medicine, considered now as the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality. It may occur in up to 1 in 5,000 transfusions and carries an elevated morbidity and mortality. Clinically it presents as hypoxia and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, usually within 6 hours of transfusion. It consists of an immunological phenomenon involving the activation of neutrophils and endothelial injury, leading to capillary leak and pulmonary edema, mechanisms shared with lung ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Brief and repetitive periods of ischemia in an organ or limb have been shown to protect against subsequent major IR injury in distant organs, a phenomenon called remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC). Limb RIP has been shown to protect the lung against IR injury trough modulation of endothelial function as well as neutrophil activation and infiltration. The protective effects of RIPC on the lung have been confirmed in clinical trials of orthopedic and cardiothoracic surgery. RIPC is a safe, tolerable and cheap procedure. I propose that limb RIPC could be used as a preventive strategy against the development of TRALI.
    Medical Hypotheses 09/2014; 83(3). DOI:10.1016/j.mehy.2014.05.016 · 1.15 Impact Factor
  • Advances in Anesthesia 01/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.aan.2014.08.005

Preview

Download
3 Downloads
Available from