Prevalence and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus in HIV-1 infection treated with combined antiretroviral therapy.

Diabetes and Obesity Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, New South Wales 2010, Australia.
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Impact Factor: 4.39). 03/2009; 50(5):499-505. DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e31819c291b
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the treatment of HIV-1 infection confers significant survival benefit and, by immunoreconstitution, has altered the natural history of this life-threatening disease. Metabolic complications of cART include hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and lipodystrophy, with resultant increases in risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. These diseases will present new challenges in the management of HIV infection. This article reviews the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its antecedents in HIV-infected patients treated with cART. It also reviews the current understanding of mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in cART considering insulin resistance and insulin secretion, both requisites for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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