Novel inhibitor of Plasmodium histone deacetylase that cures P. berghei-infected mice.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057, USA.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (Impact Factor: 4.45). 03/2009; 53(5):1727-34. DOI: 10.1128/AAC.00729-08
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are potential targets for the development of new antimalarial drugs. The growth of Plasmodium falciparum and other apicomplexans can be suppressed in the presence of potent HDAC inhibitors in vitro and in vivo; however, in vivo parasite suppression is generally incomplete or reversible after the discontinuation of drug treatment. Furthermore, most established HDAC inhibitors concurrently show broad toxicities against parasites and human cells and high drug concentrations are required for effective antimalarial activity. Here, we report on HDAC inhibitors that are potent against P. falciparum at subnanomolar concentrations and that have high selectivities; the lead compounds have mean 50% inhibitory concentrations for the killing of the malaria parasite up to 950 times lower than those for the killing of mammalian cells. These potential drugs improved survival and completely and irreversibly suppressed parasitemia in P. berghei-infected mice.


Available from: Anatoly Dritschilo, Jan 10, 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lysine deacetylases (KDACs) inhibitors may have therapeutic value in anti-malarial combination therapies with artemisinin. To evaluate connections between KDACs and artemisinin, Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutants in KDAC genes were assayed. Deletion of RPD3, but not other KDAC genes, resulted in strong sensitivity to artemisinin, which was also observed in sit4Δ mutants with impaired endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi protein trafficking. Decreased accumulation of the transporters Pdr5p, Fur4p, and Tat2p was observed in rpd3Δ and sit4Δ cells. The unfolded protein response is induced in rpd3Δ cells consistent with retention of proteins in the ER. Disruption of protein trafficking appears to sensitize cells to artemisinin and targeting these pathways may be useful as part of artemisinin based anti-malarial therapy.
    FEBS Letters 09/2014; 588(21). DOI:10.1016/j.febslet.2014.09.021 · 3.34 Impact Factor
  • Annual reports in medicinal chemistry 01/2010; 45:245-260. DOI:10.1016/S0065-7743(10)45015-0 · 1.19 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are an emerging class of potential antimalarial drugs. We investigated the antiplasmodial properties of 16 alkoxyurea-based HDAC inhibitors containing various cap and zinc binding groups (ZBGs). Ten compounds displayed sub-micromolar activity against the 3D7 line of Plasmodium falciparum. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that a hydroxamic acid ZBG is crucial for antiplasmodial activity, and that the introduction of bulky alkyl substituents to cap groups increases potency against asexual blood-stage parasites. We also demonstrate that selected compounds cause hyperacetylation of P. falciparum histone H4, indicating inhibition of one or more PfHDACs. To assess the selectivity of alkoxyurea-based HDAC inhibitors for parasite over normal mammalian cells, the cytotoxicity of representative compounds was evaluated against neonatal foreskin fibroblast (NFF) cells. The most active compound, 6-((3-(4-(tert-butyl)phenyl)ureido)oxy)-N-hydroxyhexanamide (1 e, Pf3D7 IC50 : 0.16 μM) was 31-fold more toxic against the asexual blood stages than towards normal mammalian cells. Moreover, a subset of four structurally diverse HDAC inhibitors revealed moderate activity against late-stage (IV-V) gametocytes.
    ChemMedChem 03/2014; 9(3). DOI:10.1002/cmdc.201300469 · 3.05 Impact Factor