To determine whether race or ethnicity affect baseline description of pain by patients with suspected long-bone fracture.
Secondary analysis of data from an observational study of patients age 18-55 in two urban emergency departments.
Patients rated their pain using an 11-point scale, where 0 represents no pain, and 10 represents the worst possible pain.
Of 838 patients, 49% were Hispanic, 29% African American, and 22% White. Mean baseline pain scores were, respectively, 8.2, 8.1, and 7.7. In multivariate analysis, pair-wise comparisons showed no significant differences in pain self-report.
Ethnoracial oligoanalgesia cannot be explained by differences in baseline pain severity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For decades, large disparities in birth outcomes have been observed between babies born to African- American (black) women
and those born to European-American (white) women. Adverse birth outcomes – being born “too early” (premature or preterm birth,
before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy) or “too small” (low birth weight, less than 5½ pounds) – are powerful predictors not
only of infant survival, but also of child health, development, and serious disability (Institute of Medicine, 2007). Recent
research reveals that low birth weight and premature birth also are strong predictors of chronic disease in adulthood, including
cardiovascular disease and diabetes, which are major causes of premature mortality (Barker, 2006; Phillips, Jones, & Goulden,
2006; Whincup et al., 2008). As shown in Figs. 10.1 and 10.2, the disparities generally have been persistent, until recently
when relative disparities began to narrow somewhat, for undesirable reasons: the rates of both preterm birth (PTB) and low
birth weight (LBW) worsened among white women, with little (PTB) or no (LBW) improvement among black women. (For simplicity,
throughout this chapter “black” and “white” are used to refer only to non-Hispanic women.)
Handbook of African American Health, 12/2010: pages 155-163;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lead poisoning is a serious but preventable childhood disease, caused by exposure to lead, which is found primarily in paint,
soil, and household dust. Children come in contact with these sources of lead during normal indoor and outdoor play. Lead
is especially dangerous to children under 7 years of age because this is a critical phase in the development of their neurological
system. The implications of lead poisoning are vast, as the neurological damage it causes can lead to such problems as learning
disabilities and emotional disturbances. Lead poisoning can damage a young child’s developing brain and nervous system, leading
to reduced IQ and behavioral disabilities. Consequently, lead poisoning is associated with poor school performance and delinquent
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple studies have shown that racial and ethnic minorities often experience lower quality of health care when compared
with white patients (Institute of Medicine [IOM], 2002). Even after taking into account various factors like differences in
access to care and disease severity, racial and ethnic disparities in care remain, and are often associated with worse health
outcomes (IOM; Mead et al., 2008).
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