Race and Ethnicity Do Not Affect Baseline Self-Report of Pain Severity in Patients with Suspected Long-Bone Fractures
ABSTRACT To determine whether race or ethnicity affect baseline description of pain by patients with suspected long-bone fracture.
Secondary analysis of data from an observational study of patients age 18-55 in two urban emergency departments.
Patients rated their pain using an 11-point scale, where 0 represents no pain, and 10 represents the worst possible pain.
Of 838 patients, 49% were Hispanic, 29% African American, and 22% White. Mean baseline pain scores were, respectively, 8.2, 8.1, and 7.7. In multivariate analysis, pair-wise comparisons showed no significant differences in pain self-report.
Ethnoracial oligoanalgesia cannot be explained by differences in baseline pain severity.
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ABSTRACT: For decades, large disparities in birth outcomes have been observed between babies born to African- American (black) women and those born to European-American (white) women. Adverse birth outcomes – being born “too early” (premature or preterm birth, before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy) or “too small” (low birth weight, less than 5½ pounds) – are powerful predictors not only of infant survival, but also of child health, development, and serious disability (Institute of Medicine, 2007). Recent research reveals that low birth weight and premature birth also are strong predictors of chronic disease in adulthood, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes, which are major causes of premature mortality (Barker, 2006; Phillips, Jones, & Goulden, 2006; Whincup et al., 2008). As shown in Figs. 10.1 and 10.2, the disparities generally have been persistent, until recently when relative disparities began to narrow somewhat, for undesirable reasons: the rates of both preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) worsened among white women, with little (PTB) or no (LBW) improvement among black women. (For simplicity, throughout this chapter “black” and “white” are used to refer only to non-Hispanic women.)12/2010: pages 155-163;
Chapter: Preventing Childhood Lead Poisoning[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Lead poisoning is a serious but preventable childhood disease, caused by exposure to lead, which is found primarily in paint, soil, and household dust. Children come in contact with these sources of lead during normal indoor and outdoor play. Lead is especially dangerous to children under 7 years of age because this is a critical phase in the development of their neurological system. The implications of lead poisoning are vast, as the neurological damage it causes can lead to such problems as learning disabilities and emotional disturbances. Lead poisoning can damage a young child’s developing brain and nervous system, leading to reduced IQ and behavioral disabilities. Consequently, lead poisoning is associated with poor school performance and delinquent behavior.12/2010: pages 103-111;
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ABSTRACT: Multiple studies have shown that racial and ethnic minorities often experience lower quality of health care when compared with white patients (Institute of Medicine [IOM], 2002). Even after taking into account various factors like differences in access to care and disease severity, racial and ethnic disparities in care remain, and are often associated with worse health outcomes (IOM; Mead et al., 2008).12/2010: pages 271-282;