Lower quit rates among African American and Latino menthol cigarette smokers at a tobacco treatment clinic
ABSTRACT Lower rates of smoking cessation and higher rates of lung cancer in African American (AA) smokers may be linked to their preference for mentholated cigarettes.
This study assessed the relationship between menthol smoking, race/ethnicity and smoking cessation among a diverse cohort of 1688 patients attending a specialist smoking cessation service.
46% of the patients smoked mentholated cigarettes, but significantly more AA (81%) and Latino (66%) patients than Whites (32%) smoked menthols. AA and Latino menthol smokers smoked significantly fewer cigarettes per day (CPD) than non-menthol smokers (15.7 vs. 20.3, for AA, and 17.0 vs. 22.1, for Latinos), with no differences among White menthol and non-menthol smokers. At 4-week follow up, AA, Latino and White non-menthol smokers had similar quit rates (54%, 50% and 50% respectively). In contrast, among menthol smokers, AAs and Latinos had lower quit rates (30% and 23% respectively) compared with Whites (43%, p < 0.001). AA and Latino menthol smokers had significantly lower odds of quitting [odds ratio (OR) = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.17, 0.69 for AA, and OR = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.16, 0.62 for Latinos] than their non-menthol counterparts. At 6-month follow up, a similar trend was observed for the race/ethnicity subgroups, with AA menthol smokers having half the odds of being abstinent compared with AA non-menthol smokers (OR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.25, 0.9).
Despite smoking fewer CPD, AA and Latino menthol smokers experience reduced success in quitting as compared with non-menthol smokers within the same ethnic/racial groups.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Jonathan Foulds, Apr 26, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Tobacco use is the single most important preventable cause of cancer-related deaths in the USA and many parts of the world. There is growing evidence that menthol cigarettes are starter tobacco products for children, adolescents, and young adults. Accumulating research also suggests that smoking menthol cigarettes reinforces nicotine dependence, impedes cessation, and promotes relapse. However, menthol cigarettes are exempt from the US Food and Drug Administration ban on flavored cigarettes due, in part, to the lack of empirical evidence describing the health consequences of smoking menthol cigarettes relative to regular cigarettes. Determining the biological effects of menthol cigarette smoke relative to regular cigarette smoke can clarify the health risks associated with the use of respective products and assist regulatory agencies in making scientifically based decisions on the development and evaluation of regulations on tobacco products to protect public health and to reduce tobacco use by minors. We highlight the inherent shortcomings of the conventional epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory research on menthol cigarettes that have contributed to the ongoing debate on the public health impact of menthol in cigarettes. In addition, we provide perspectives on how future investigations exploiting state-of-the-art biomarkers of exposure and disease states can help answer the lingering question of menthol in cigarettes.Cancer Causes and Control 11/2014; 26(2). DOI:10.1007/s10552-014-0499-7 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Menthol in cigarettes has been examined for its potential to affect smoking dependence, measured primarily as number of cigarettes smoked per day and time to first cigarette after waking; the ability to quit smoking constitutes an additional measure of dependence. Successful quitting among menthol compared to non-menthol cigarette smokers is difficult to determine from the literature, due in part to the various definitions of quitting used by researchers. Nevertheless, intervention and follow-up studies of smoking cessation treatments generally indicate no differences in quitting success among menthol compared to non-menthol smokers, while cross-sectional studies suggest some differences within race/ethnicity groups. The association between menthol cigarette use and likelihood of being a former versus current smoker was examined based on data from the National Health Interview Survey and Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. Analyses stratified by race/ethnicity and limited to smokers who had quit at least one year prior to survey participation provided inconsistent results with regard to menthol cigarette use and quitting, both within surveys (i.e., comparing race/ethnicity groups) and between surveys (i.e., same race/ethnicity group across surveys). Evidence suggesting the existence or direction of an association between menthol in cigarettes and quitting depended on the data source.Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 07/2014; 70(1). DOI:10.1016/j.yrtph.2014.07.009 · 2.14 Impact Factor