Impact of cardiac complications on outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a meta-analysis.

Academic Medical Centre, Department of Cardiology, PO Box 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Neurology (Impact Factor: 8.25). 02/2009; 72(7):635-42. DOI: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000342471.07290.07
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Impact of cardiac complications after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to assess whether EKG changes, myocardial damage, or echocardiographic wall motion abnormalities (WMAs) are related to death, poor outcome (death or dependency), or delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after SAH.
Articles on cardiac abnormalities after aneurysmal SAH that met predefined criteria and were published between 1960 and 2007 were retrieved. We assessed the quality of reports and extracted data on patient characteristics, cardiac abnormalities, and outcome measurements. Poor outcome was defined as death or dependence by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (dichotomized at < or = 3) or the modified Rankin scale (dichotomized at > 3). If studies used another dichotomy or another outcome scale, we used the numbers of patients with poor outcome provided by the authors. We calculated pooled relative risks (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals for the relation between cardiac abnormalities and outcome measurements.
We included 25 studies (16 prospective) with a total of 2,690 patients (mean age 53 years; 35% men). Mortality was associated with WMAs (RR 1.9), elevated troponin (RR 2.0) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels (RR 11.1), tachycardia (RR 3.9), Q waves (RR 2.9), ST-segment depression (RR 2.1), T-wave abnormalities (RR 1.8), and bradycardia (RR 0.6). Poor outcome was associated with elevated troponin (RR 2.3) and creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) levels (RR 2.3) and ST-segment depression (RR 2.4). Occurrence of DCI was associated with WMAs (RR 2.1), elevated troponin (RR 3.2), CK-MB (RR 2.9), and BNP levels (RR 4.5), and ST-segment depression (RR 2.4). All RRs were significant.
Markers for cardiac damage and dysfunction are associated with an increased risk of death, poor outcome, and delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Future research should establish whether these cardiac abnormalities are independent prognosticators and should be directed toward pathophysiologic mechanisms and potential treatment options.

1 Bookmark
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Object The rupture of an intracranial aneurysm is followed by increased intracranial pressure and decreased cerebral blood flow. A major systemic stress reaction follows, presumably to restore cerebral blood flow. However, this reaction can also cause adverse effects, including myocardial abnormalities, which are common and can be serious, and increased levels of natriuretic peptides, especially brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). The association of BNP with fluid and salt balance, vasospasm, brain ischemia, and cardiac injury has been studied but almost exclusively regarding events after admission. Brain natriuretic peptide has also been measured at various time points and analyzed in different ways statistically. The authors approached BNP measurement in a new way; they used the calculated area under the curve (AUC) for the first 4 days to quantitatively measure the BNP load during the first critical part of the disease state. Their rationale was a suspicion that early BNP load is a marker of the severity of the ictus and will influence the subsequent course of the disease by disturbing the fluid and salt balance. Methods The study included 156 patients with acute spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Mean patient age was 59.8 ± 11.2 years, and 105 (67%) of the patients were female. An aneurysm was found in 138 patients. A total of 82 aneurysms were treated by endovascular coiling, 50 were treated by surgery, and 6 were untreated. At the time of admission, serum samples were collected for troponin-I analysis and for the N-terminal prohormone of BNP (NT-proBNP); daily thereafter, samples were collected for the NT-proBNP analysis. The cumulative BNP load was calculated as the AUC for NT-proBNP during the first 4 days. The following variables were studied in terms of their influence on the AUC for NT-proBNP: sex, age, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade of SAH, Fisher grade, angiographic result, treatment of aneurysm, clinical neurological deterioration, verified infections, vasospasm treatment, and 6-month outcome. Results The AUC for NT-proBNP was larger when variables indicated a more severe SAH. These variables were higher Fisher and World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grades, high levels of troponin-I at admission, an aneurysm, neurological deficits, and infections. The AUC for NT-proBNP was also larger among women, older patients, and patients with poor outcomes. Linear regression showed that the best predicting model for large AUC for NT-proBNP was the combination of the following: female sex, high levels of troponin-I, an aneurysm, neurological deficits, and advanced age. Conclusions The cumulative BNP load during the first days after SAH can be predicted by variables describing the severity of the disease already known at the time of admission. This information can be used to identify patients at risk for an adverse course of the disease.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 10/2013; · 3.15 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cardiac complications are often developed after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and may cause sudden death of the patient. There are reports in the literature addressing ischemia modified albumin (IMA) as an early and useful marker in the diagnosis of ischemic heart events. The aim of this study is to evaluate serum IMA by using the albumin cobalt binding (ACB) test in the first, second, and seventh days of experimental SAH in rats.Twenty-eight Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups each consisting of seven animals. These were classified as control group, 1st, 2nd and 7th day SAH groups. SAH was done by transclival basilar artery puncture. Blood samples were collected under anesthesia from the left ventricles of the heart using the cardiac puncture method for IMA measurement. Histopathological examinations were performed on the heart and lung tissues. Albumin with by colorimetric, creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined on an automatic analyser using the enzymatic method. IMA using by ACB test was detected with spectrophotometer. Serum IMA (p = 0.044) in seventh day of SAH were higher compared to the control group. Total injury scores of heart and lung tissue, also myocytolysis at day 7 were significantly higher than control group (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001), day 1 (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001) and day 2 (p = 0.001, p = 0.007, p = 0.001). A positive correlation between IMA - myocytolysis (r = 0.48, p = 0.008), and between IMA - heart tissue total injury score (r = 0.41, p = 0.029) was found. The results revealed that increased serum IMA may be related to myocardial stress after SAH.
    BMC Neuroscience 02/2014; 15(1):33. · 3.00 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Dataset: serefden


Available from
Jun 10, 2014