Melanocytic Nevus Development in Colorado Children Born in 1998

Department of Community and Behavioral Health, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Denver, 13001 E 17th Pl, Campus Box B119, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.
Archives of dermatology (Impact Factor: 4.79). 02/2009; 145(2):148-56. DOI: 10.1001/archdermatol.2008.571
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To describe the development of nevi from 3 to 8 years of age in a birth cohort of children in Colorado.
Longitudinal observational study.
Large managed care organization and university and private primary care practices.
Annual convenience samples of children born in 1998 (range, n = 137 to n = 870) (participation rates, 18.8%-76.0%). We recruited children through the managed care organization, private primary care practices, and community settings.
Total whole body nevus counts, counts by nevus diameter (< 2, 2 to < 5, or > or = 5 mm), and counts for chronically and intermittently exposed body sites.
Non-Hispanic white children had significantly more nevi than did other racial/ethnic groups and developed an average of 4 to 6 new nevi per year from 3 to 8 years of age. Non-Hispanic white boys had significantly more nevi than did girls beginning at 6 years of age (median, 21 [interquartile range, 28] vs 17 [17]; P = .002). This difference was due to nevi of less than 2 mm and nevi in chronically exposed body sites. Development of new nevi leveled off in chronically exposed body sites at 7 years of age and at a higher level for boys than girls.
Children in Colorado developed more small nevi and fewer large nevi compared with children in other regions of the world, highlighting the importance of studying nevus development in various locations where sun exposure patterns and behavioral norms vary. The sex difference in nevus development could be owing to variation in sun exposure and/or a biological predisposition of boys to develop more nevi. Studies of nevus development can aid in the understanding of the complicated relationship between nevus development and malignant melanoma.

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Available from: Nancy Asdigian, Jul 05, 2014
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    • "This nested cross-sectional analysis used data collected as part of the Colorado Kids Sun Care Program, a randomized controlled trial assessing sun protection practices of parents to reduce skin cancer risk for their children (9). The study follows a cohort of 1,145 children born from January through September 1998 and recruited from a large managed care organization, private pediatrician offices, and various community locations in the Denver-Boulder-Colorado Springs area of Colorado. "
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    ABSTRACT: Sun exposure is a major risk factor for skin cancer, but without physical activity, children are at risk of childhood obesity. The objective of this study was to explore relationships between parental perceptions of skin cancer threat, sun protection behaviors, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI) in children. This is a cross-sectional analysis nested within the Colorado Kids Sun Care Program sun safety intervention trial. In summer 2007, parent telephone interviews provided data on demographics, perceptions of skin cancer threat, sun protection behaviors, and physical activity. Physical examinations provided data on phenotype, freckling, and BMI. Data from 999 Colorado children born in 1998 were included in analysis. We used analysis of variance, Spearman's rho (ρ) correlation, and multivariable linear regression analysis to evaluate relationships with total amount of outdoor physical activity. After controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, skin color, and sun protection, regression analysis showed that each unit increase in perceived severity of nonmelanoma skin cancer was associated with a 30% increase in hours of outdoor physical activity (P = .005). Hours of outdoor physical activity were not related to perceived severity of melanoma or perceived susceptibility to skin cancer. BMI-for-age was not significantly correlated with perceptions of skin cancer threat, use of sun protection, or level of physical activity. The promotion of sun safety is not likely to inhibit physical activity. Skin cancer prevention programs should continue to promote midday sun avoidance and sun protection during outdoor activities.
    Preventing chronic disease 08/2012; 9(8):E143. DOI:10.5888/pcd9.110345 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    • "Site-specific sunburns were significantly associated with naevus prevalence on the back (P = 0.03 for three or more sunburns) but not on the face, arms or legs (Dodd et al., 2007). Non-Hispanic white boys had significantly more naevi than did girls from 6 years of age, and this difference was due to more small naevi and naevi on chronically exposed body sites (Crane et al., 2009). In another prospective study of naevi in a US cohort of elementary children in northeast USA, high total naevus count was related to spending 5–6 h outdoors between 10 AM and 4 PM weekly, and to a history of painful sunburns (Oliveria et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: We review the general amount and patterns of exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation that children and teenagers experience and the spectrum of UV-related skin damage that can occur as a result. Data about the amount of solar UV received by children and teenagers are relatively few but suggest that around 40-50% of total UV to age 60 occurs before age 20. Among white children, those with the palest complexions suffer the most damage. Comparisons of prevalence and incidence of outcomes in children and teenagers sharing common ancestry, but living at different latitudes, show that prevalence rates of photoaging and melanocytic naevi are higher in Australian compared with British children, and similarly for melanoma. Genetic risk for the majority of the melanomas in teens is a function of genes controlling naevus propensity and pigmentation in the skin. High numbers of naevi and freckles, red hair, blue eyes, inability to tan, as well as a family history are the primary determinants of melanoma among adolescents. Beyond the signs of skin damage seen in children are the latent effects observed later in adulthood. Childhood is believed to be a susceptible window for long-term harmful effects of UV, as evidenced by clear differences in skin cancer risk between child and adult migrants from high to low latitudes. Effective UV radiation protection from childhood is necessary to control both immediate and long-term harmful effects on children's skin.
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    ABSTRACT: Nevi are a main risk factor for malignant melanoma, and most nevi develop in childhood. This study examined the relationship between vacations and nevi in 681 White children born in 1998 who were lifetime residents of Colorado. Vacation histories were assessed through telephone interviews of parents, whereas nevus and phenotypic characteristics were assessed through skin exams at age 7. Multiple linear and logistic regression were used to assess the influence of vacations on counts of nevi <2 mm in size and the presence of any nevi > or = 2 mm after controlling for other variables. Each waterside vacation > or = 1 year before the exam at age 7 was found to be associated with a 5% increase in nevi <2 mm. Waterside vacations <1 year before the skin exam were not related to nevus count (<2 mm); regardless of timeframe, waterside vacations were not related to the presence of nevi > or = 2 mm. UV dose received on waterside vacations, number of days spent on waterside vacations, and nonwaterside vacations were not significantly related to nevi <2 or > or = 2 mm. These results suggest that there is a lag of at least 1 year in the development of new nevi after vacation sun exposure. It appears that a threshold dose of UV exposure is received quickly on each waterside vacation. Parents of young children should exercise caution in selection of vacation locations to reduce melanoma risk.
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